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ALMANAC 




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AND- 




SOUTHERN STATES, 



To give 



Directions for 



the Cultivation 
in the South. 



Vegetables, 



Entered according to Act of Congress by Richard Frotschek, in the Office of the Librarian 
at Washins;tori, in the year 1877. 



^VS^AREHOUSE 






ai44/e ^'l>^ee4^. 



NEAR THE FRENCH MARKET, 



GEO. MULLER, PRINTER, 50 BIENVILLE STREET, N. O. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The cultivation of vegetables for sale grows annually in impor- 
tance in the South, improved cars and rapid transit giving oar farmers 
the advantage of distant markets, increasing both the demand for 
" garden truck " and the profit on its cultivation. 

This has added to the interest felt in the questions, "what to culti- 
vate? " and "how to do it?"— and in my Almanac and Garden Manual 
I have carefully considered these points in all their bearings, and 
have given directions as to the proper time and methods of cultivating 
vegetables in the South. 

The encomiums bestowed upon past numbers of my Almanac and 
Garden Manual, and the success met by those who have followed the 
directions therein, attest the merits of the publication, and are to me 
gratifying testimonials that my efforts have tended to build up an.d 
expand this branch of Southern industry. 

From all parts of the South have come to me endorsements of the 
utility and correctness of my informations, and compliments to my 
enterprise and energy, for all of which I tender my grateful acknowl- 
edgments. 

Quietly, and without desire for show, I have pursued my business, 
aiming by integrity, promptness and strict attention to the interest of 
my patrons, to merit the confidence and good will of the community 
in general, and the very liberal and constantly increasing patronage 
received is a practical and pleasant proof that I have succeeded. 

Assuring my patrons that their continued favors will be duly ap- 
preciated, and that no effort will be spared to make my Almanac and 
Garden Manual annually of more benefit and assistance to the garden- 
ers of the South, 

I am, 

yours truly, 

EICHARD FROTSCHEE. 



Richard FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



SEEDS BY MAIL. 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part of the United States in 
packages not exceeding four pounds, at sixteen cents per pound, or 
one cent per ounce, or fraction thereof. On seeds ordered in papers 
or by tlie ounce I prepay tlie postage, except on peas, beans and corn. 
This refers to large sized papers which are sold at one dollar per dozen. 
When ordered by the pound sixteen cents per pound postage has to 
be added to the price of the seeds ; to peas, beans and corn, thirty 
cents per quart. 

All packages are put up in the most careful manner, and every 
precaution taken to insure their reaching their destination in safety. 
Purchasers living at any place where my seeds are not sold, are re- 
quested to write to me to obtain their supplies. This will be more 
profitable than to buy from country stores where seeds, left on com- 
mission, are often kept till all power of germination is destroyed. As 
seed merchants, who give out their goods on commission, rarely col- 
lect what is not sold, oftener than once every twelve or eighteen 
months, and as Lettuce, Spinach, Parsnip, Carrots, and many other 
seeds will either not sprout at all or grow imperfectl3^ if kept over a 
summer in the South ; to buy and plant such, is but money, time and 
labor wasted. 

Herein our climate, where we plant garden vegetables as freely 
in autumn as in spring, and where often the seeds have to be put in 
the ground when the weather is very warm, it is an indispensable 
necessity to have perfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements with my growers are made so that I receive the 
new crop, expressly cleaned "for me, as soon as it is matured. The 
varieties which are not raised in the North, I order from Europe, and 
have them shipped so as to reach me about the beginning of August, 
just the time they are needed for fall planting. By following this 
plan I have always a full supply of fresh seeds of undoubted germi- 
nating qualities, while dealers, who sell on commission, have only those 
left from the winter previous. 

On the" receipt of one dollar I will mail thirteen large size papers 
of seeds, put up the same as seeds sold by the pound. These papers 
can be selected from this Catalogue, and include four papers of either 
Beans or Peas if so wanted. Or, for the same amount, I will mail 
twenty smaller papers, including four papers of either Peas or Beans. 
This is done to enable consumers to get reliable seeds in good size 
papers in places Avhere my seeds are not sold. The papers put up by 
Northern seedsmen are so small that of some varieties they hardly 
contain enough to do any good. The low prices charged to merchants 
are made at the expense of consumers. My papers are large and worth 
the full value of the money paid for them. 

It cannot be too well impressed on the minds of all cultivators of 
vegetables, that seeds kept through a summer in this climate icUl not 
grow, and that all who use such seeds will be losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested. 

Having received a great many complaints that letters which were 
addressed to me and contained money, were not answered, I must 
state that these letters never reached me, and, therefore, would caution 
my customers not to send any money in letters without registering same. 
By sending one dollar, or upward, the cost, ten cents, can be charged 
to me. The cheapest and surest way is money order or draft, but 
where tliey cannot be had, letters have to be registered, which can be 
done at any Post Office. 



For tJie Southern States. 



A Few Remarks on Raising Vegetables for Shipping. 



Within the past few years the raising of early vegetables for ship- 
ping West, has become quite an item in the neighborhood of New 
Orleans. We have advantages here, which are not found elsewhere, 
for that branch of industry. Freights have been reduced to all points 
from here, and special cars, built expressly for carrying green vege- 
tables and frait, have been put on the Railroads. We are earlier here 
than at any other point, and with the rich ground we have, and the 
large supply of manure to be had for the hauling only, early vege- 
tables can be raised very successfully. 

Almost every kind of vegetables are shipped from here, but Beans, 
Cucumbers, Beets, Tomatoes, Cabbage and Peas form the bulk. In 
regard to Beans, most gardeners make the mistake of planting com- 
mon Red Beans, when they should plant Dwarf Wax, Valentine or 
Best of All, which find a much more ready sale and better prices than 
the first named. In the way of Cucumbers, the Improved White Spine 
and New Orleans Market are the best varieties, as they bear abund- 
antly, keep their color better, and are superior for shipping than 
any other. I have been supplying the largest growers in that line 
with seed, the stock of which cannot be surpassed, in quality. Of 
Beets only the dark red Blood Turnip or the Egyptian should be 
planted for shipping purposes. The Egyptian is a very quick grov/ing 
variety, and should not be sown quite so early as the Blood Turnip, 
which ought to be sown in September and October ; for the former 
variety, January is time enough. 

For Tomatoes, the Extra Early Dwarf comes in bearing first, but 
should be planted only for the first crop, as when large varieties come 
in the market, the former do not sell as well. Great improvements 
have been made of late years in Tomatoes ; the varieties raised and in- 
troduced by Livingston's Sons, are perfect, and hardly any improve- 
ment can be made on such varieties as the Paragon and Favorite. 
New Orleans is not a good point to ship Tomatoes from, they hardly 
ever arrive at destination in good condition. Along the Jackson E. R., 
where the land is more sandy, a better article is raised for shipping. 
Lettuce is shipped quite extensively ; the Improved Passion is used 
principally for that purpose. 

Potatoes and Onions are shipped in large quantities, but the for- 
mer are very uncertain in regard to prices. Late shipped Onions 
generally pay better than those shipped too early. The market often 
gets overstocked with vegetables, bat never in the spring as long as 
they are fit for shipping ; the planting at that time is more remune- 
rative than at any other. 

There is a broad field yet to growers of vegetables for shipping. 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden 2Ianual 



The past season has not been a good one for shippers. Cabbages 
did not pay ; the crop for shipping came in too late, and the weather 
being Avarin they did not arrive in good order at destination. Beets 
also did not pay, there were too many planted. Onions, Peas, 
Early Potatoes and Cucumbers paid well, but, owing to late cold 
weather, did not bear as well as in former years. Beans hare done 
finely, the Valentine andBesl of All carried in good condition. The 
Wax Beans did not arrive in such good order, except in rare cases. 
Tomatoes paid better than in a number of previous years. 

Gardeners and others who contemplate raising vegetables for ship- 
ping, are invited to give me a call. From the fact that all staple 
articles are raised for me by contract, in such sections best suited to 
mature the varieties we need for our climate, and the interest I take 
in the seed business, coupled with the thorough knowledge of the 
same, enables me to assist in making selections of seeds for that pur- 
pose. The interest of my customers and mine are identical. My 
stock is the best selected and largest in the South. 



The following is a copy of a letter from Major A. W. Eountree, 
who is one of the largest and most successful Cabbage growers in this 
State. 

Orange Geove, 
Jefferson Parish, October .24, iSSo. 
Mr. E. Feotscher, Xew Orleans, La. 

Dear Sir : — In answer to your request, that I should give you my 
views and experience in Cabbage culture, I can only say that, 'while "I 
cheerfully give you the beneflt'of my experience— hoping it may help 
to give light on the subject — I think there are many growers better 
qualified, from longer experience, to speak on the subject. 

Cabbage has become one of the leading articles of vegetable diet, 
and at almost all seasons of the year is in constant supply. In the 
spring and early summer car loads of Cabbage are to be seen daily on 
all the railroads from the South going to all northern cities to supply 
the demand. And, again, in the latter'part of the summer and fall sea- 
sons it is reversed, "and thousands of car loads are sent from the 
northern States to supply the South. It is a very much larger business 
than the mass of the people have any idea of, 'giving employment to 
thousands of people, and many dollars of capital. 

To make a success of Cabbage growing for shipment at long dis- 
tances, it requires high culture to bring it to perfection. My mode of 
culture is to plow under a crop of Cow Peas, or some other green 
crop, several weeks before the time for setting out the plants. The 
ground should be replowed and well manured before the planting 
takes place. Stable manure or some good fertilizer used freely, will 
insure good, solid heads. Get good seed of some good, approved variety 
that succeeds well in your neighborhood. Let the ground be well 
drained and stir it often, and you will get good results; but, if the 
work is carelessly done, you will certainly fail, and then complain of 
bad seed. In packing for shipment open crates are used, and the 
loose leaves should be removed, excepting about one circle to act as 
a sort of envelope for the head. 

I have tried many varieties of Cabbage, and found several kinds 
to do very well ; but," all things considered, the Flat Dutch for a win- 
ter crop," and the Genuine German Brunswick for early spring, are 
generally preferred bv market gardeners. The Excelsior Flat Dutch 
can be sown in December, and will make a good spring crop. The 
Early Summer is not so large, but in a favorable season makes nice 
heads. 

Yours trulv, 

A. W. EOUNTREE. 



For tlie Southern States. 



1st Month. 



JANUARY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moou 5(1, 2h. 22m. Morning. 

First Quarter 13d. 7h. 3m. Morning. 

Full Moon 20(1, 2h, 23m. Morning, 

Last Quarter 26d, 8h, 10m. Evening. 



j.,y Sun Sun 
rises. sets. 

Month &Week h. m. h. m. 


Moon 
r. & s. 

h. m. 


1 CHRO]¥OL,OGY 

— OF— 

1 IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 

2 


Frid. 

Sat. 


7 9 
7 8 


4 51 
4 52 


2 58 

3 50 


Union of Ireland with Great Britain, 1801. 
Gen. Wolf born, Westerham, Kent, 1727, 


1) Sunday after New Year, 


Matth, 2. Day's length, 9h. 44m. 



Sun. 


7 8 


4 52 


4 29 


Mon. 


7 8 


4 52 


5 14 


Tues. 


7 7 


4 53 


sets. 


Wed. 


7 7 


4 53 


6 59 


Thurs. 


7 7 


4 53 


7 48 


Frid. 


7 G 


4 54 


8 30 


Sat. 


7 6 


4 54 


8 59 



Eliot Warburton, Hist, Novelist, died, 1852. 

Introdu'n Silk nianuf'es into Europe, 1536. 

Vigil of Epiphany. 

Epiphany, or 12th day, old Christmas Day. 

Hobert Nicoll, poet, born, 1814. 

Bat. N. O., 1815&lnang. Gov. Nicholls, '77. 

Car. Lucr. Herschel, Astrouo'r, died, 1848, 



2) 1st Sunday after Epiphany. Luke 2. Day's length, 9h, 48m, 



10 


§un. 


7 6 


4 54 


9 55 


1st Steamb't New Orleans fr. Pittsburg, 12. 


11 


:\ion. 


7 5 


4 55 


10 57 


First Lottery drawn in England, 1569. 


12 


Tiies. 


7 4 


4 56 


11 18 


St. Arcadius, Martyr. 


13 


Wed. 


7 3 


4 57 


morn 


G. Fox, Founder Sect of Quakers, died, 1G90. 


14 


Thurs. 


7 3 


4 57 


12 46 


"Great Frost" in England, began 1205. 


15 


Frid. 


7 2 


4 58 


1 10 


Thomas Croiton Croker, bom, 1798. 


16 


Sat. 


7 1 


4 59 


2 2 


Edmond Spencer, Poet, died, 1599. 



3) 2d Sunday after Epiphany. John 2. Day's length, 9h. 58m. 

17 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 



Sun. 


7 1 


4 59 


3 


Mon, 


7 


5 


4 2 


Tues. 


7 


5 


5 1 


Wed. 


6 59 


5 1 


rises. 


I'hurs. 


6 58 


5 2 


7 10 


Frid. 


6 58 


5 2 


8 15 


Sat. 


6 57 


5 3 


9 18 



Mozart, Musician, born, 1756. 
Festival of 8t. Peter's Chair at Rome, 
James Watt, born, 1736. 
Coldest (lay in the century, 1838. 
St. Agues, Virgin Martyr, 304. 
Francis Bacon, born 1561. 
Thanksgiving for victory of 8th, 1815. 



4) 3d Sunday after Epiphany. Matth. 8. Day's length, lOh. 8m. 

Frederick the Great, born, 1712. 

St. Paul's Day. 

Louisiana seceded, 1861. 

Admiral Lord Hood, died, 1816. 

Henry VIII, died, 1547. 

Emanuel de Swedenborg, born, 1688-89. 

King Charles I, beheaded, 1649. 



24 


Sun. 


6 56 


5 4 


10 6 


25 


Mon. 


6 55 


5 5 


11 38 


26 


Tues. 


6 54 


5 6 


morn 


27 


Wed. 


6 53 


5 7 


12 44 


28 


Thurs. 


6 52 


5 8 


1 26 


29 


Frid. 


6 51 


5 9 


2 8 


30 


Sat. 


6 50 


5 10 


3 



5) 4th Sunday after Epiphany. Matth. 



Day's length, lOh. 20m. 



31 



I Sun. I 6 50 I 5 10 I 3 34 I Ben. Johnston, born, 1574. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646.-7. Rosh Hodesh Shebat. 



Eichard Frotsclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



2d Month. 



FEBRUARY. 



28 Davs. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New INIoon 3d. llh. 

First Quarter lid. 9h. 

Full Moon...- ....lad. 12h. 

Last Quarter 2od. llh. 



Om. Evening. 
25m. Evening. 
5-5m. Afternoon. 
51m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 


Sun 
rises. 


Sun 
sets. 


Moon 1 
r. & s. 


Montli ctWeei 


h. m. 


li. m. 


h. m. 1 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Mon. 


6 49 


5 11 


4 32 


2 


Tues. 


6 49 


5 11 


3 21 


3 


SVed. 


6 48 


5 12 


sets. 


4 


Tb'ars. 


6 47 


5 13 


6 38 


5 


Frid. 


6 44 


5 14 


7 12 


6 


-at. 


6 45 


5 15 


8 3 



Washington elec. President, 1789. [mas Day 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin. [Candle- 
Henry Cromwell born. 1627. 
Delegates from Confederate States meet at 
OleBuU. born. 1810. [Montgomery, Ala.. '61. 
Charles II. Kine; of England, died, 1865. 



6) 5th Sunday after Epiphany. Matth. 13. Day's length, lOh. 32ra, 



7 


Sun. 


6 44 


5 16 


8 46 


8 


Mou. 


6 43 


5 17 


9 30 


9 


Taes. 


6 42 


5 18 


10 20 


10 


Wed. 


6 41 


5 19 


11 26 


11 


Thurs. 


6 40 


5 20 


morn 


12 


Frid. 


6 39 


5 21 


12 12 


13 


Sat. 


6 38 


5 22 


1 10 



Charles Dickens, born, 1812. 

I^'iary, Queen of Scots, b.ehraded. 1587. 

David liezzio, murdered. 1565-66. 

Riot at Oxford. 1354. 

Mary, Queen of England, born, 1516. 

Abraham Lincoln, born, 1809. 

St. Gregory II, Pope, 631. 



^) 6th Sunday after Epiphany. Matth. 17. Day's length, lOh. 46m. 



14 


Sun. 


6 37 


5 23 


2 16 


15 


Mon. 


6 36 


5 24 


3 22 


16 


rues. 


6 35 


5 25 


4 24 


17 


Wed. 


6 34 


5 26 


5 30 


18 


Thurs. 


6 33 


5 27 


rises. 


19 


Frid. 


6 32 


5 28 


6 46 


20 


Sat. 


6 31 


5 29 


7 45 



St. Valentine's Day. 

Galilei Galileo, Astronomer, born, 1564. 

Dr. Kane. Am. Arctic Explorer, died, 1857. 

Columbia, S. C, burned, 1865. 

Pope Gregory V, died, 999. 

Eliz. Carter, classical scholar, died 1806. 

U. Gaghan & T. Connor, felon poets, hanged 



8) Septuagesima Sunday, 



Matth. 20. 



Day's length, llh. Om. 



21 


Sun. 


6 30 


5 30. 


8 42 


22 


Mon. 


6 29 


5 31 


9 40 


23 


Tues 


6 28 


5 32 


10 38 


24 


Wed. 


6 27 


5 33 


11 34 


25 


Thurs. 


6 26 


5 34 


morn 


26 


Frid. 


6 25 


5 35 


12 46 


27 


Sat. 


6 24 


5 36 


1 40 



Pierre du Bose, born, 1623. 
George Washington, born. 1732. 
Battle of Baena^VLsta. 1847. 
St. Matthias, Apostle. 
Dr. Bucan, born, 1729. 
Thomas Moore, poet, died, 1852. 
Longfellow, born, 1807. 



9) Sexagesima Sundav. 



Luke 8. 



Dav's length, llh. lira. 



28 |Sun. I 6 23 I 5 37 I 2 36 | Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, murdered. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5616. 



Eosh Hodesh Adar Eishon. 



For the Southern States. 



3d Month. 



MARCH. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 5d. 4h. 45m. Evenyig. 

First Quarter 13d, 7h. 57m. Morning. 

Full Moon 19d. llh. 16m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 27d. 5h. 24ra. Morning. 



Month&Weetl h. m. 



h. m. 



Moon 

r. & s. 



CHRONOL.OGY 

— OF— 
1 M r O R TA iV T E f'EN TS. 



1 


Mon. 


6 22 


5 38 


3 36 


2 


Tnes. 


6 21 


5 39 


4 23 


3 


Wed. 


6 20 


5 40 


5 1 


4 


Thnrs. 


6 18 


5 42 


5 35 


5 


Fiid. 


6 17 


5 43 


sets. 


6 


Sat. 


6 16 


5 44 


G 45 



1st No. of the Spectator published, 1711. 
Territorj^ of Dakota organized, 18G1. 
Edmond Waller, Foet,'boru, 1605. 
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated, 1861. 
1st Locomotive run through Brit, tube, 1830. 
Great financial excitement, 1863. 



10) Quinquagesima Sunday. Luke 18. Day's length, llh. 30m. 

Blanchard, Aeronaut, died 1809. 

King William III, of England, died, 1702. 

Mardi Gras in New Orleans. 

The Forty Martyrs of St. Sebaste, 320. 

1st daily paper, "Daily Courant," Br., 1702. 

St. Gregory the Great, Pope, 604. [1781. 

Discovery of planet Uranus, by Herschel, 



7 


Suit. 


6 15 


5 45 


7 28 


8 


Mon. 


6 14 


5 46 


8 14 


9 


lues. 


6 13 


5 47 


9 4 


10 


Wed. 


6 11 


5 49 


9 54 


11 


Thurs. 


6 10 


5 50 


10 47 


12 


Prid. 


6 9 


5 51 


11 41 


13 


Sat. 


6 8 


5 52 


morn 



11) 1st Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 4. 



Day's length, llh. 46m. 



14 


Sun. 


6 7 


5 53 


1 21 


15 


Mon. 


6 6 


5 54 


2 12 


16 


Tues. 


6 5 


5 55 


3 11 


17 


Wed. 


6 3 


5 57 


4 8 


18 


Thurs. 


6 2 


5 58 


5 8 


19 


Frid. 


6 1 


5 59 


rises. 


20 


Sat. 


6 


6 


6 54 



Andrew Jackson, born, 1767. 

Julius Ctesar, assassinated, B. C, 44. 

Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures, 1823. 

St, Patrick, Apostle of Ireland. 

Edward, King and Martyr, 978. 

St. Joseph's day. 

Vesta discovered, 1807. 



12) 2d Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 15. 



Day's length, 12h. 2m. 



21 


Sun. 


5 59 


6 1 


7 42 


22 


Mon. 


5 58 


6 2 


8 36 


23 


Tues. 


5 57 


6 3 


9 30 


24 


Wed. 


5 56 


6 4 


10 22 


25 


Thurs. 


5 54 


6 6 


11 13 


26 


Frid. 


5 53 


6 7 


11 56 


27 


Sat. 


5 52 


6 8 


morn 



Louisiana ceded to France, 1800. 

J. W. von Goethe, Germ. Poet, died, 1832. 

Peter the Cruel, King of Gastile, died, 1369. 

Mahomet, II, born, 1430. 

Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary. 

Gov. Winthrop, died, 1640. 

Vera Cruz captured, 1847. 



13) 3d Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11. 



Day's length, 12h. 18m. 



28 


Sun. 


5 51 


6 9 


1 44 


29 


Mon. 


5 50 


10 


2 9 


30 


Tues. 


5 49 


6 11 


2 57 


31 


Wed. 


5 48 


6 12 


3 43 



Planet Pallas, discovered, 1802. 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, died, 1837. 
Dr. William Hunter, died, 1783. 
Beethoven, died, 1827. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646.— 7. Kosh Hodesh Adar Sheni.— 

21. Purim. 



10 



Pilchard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 



4th Month. 



APRIL. 



30 Davs. 



Calculated foe the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 4d. 9h. 

First Quarter lid. 3h. 

Full Moon 18d, 9h. 

Last Quarter .28d. 12h. 



10m. Morning. 
24m.. Afternoon. 
37m. Morning. 
Om. Morning. 



3Iontli\^Weeki h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

li. in. 


Moon 
r. .t s. 

h. m. 


CHROXOL.OG1 

— OF— 
IMPORTAM E TEXTS. 


1 Thuis. 

2 Fiid. 

3 Sat. 


5 47 6 13 
5 46 6 14 
5 45 6 15 


4 28 

5 8 
5 41 


Earthquake at Melbourue, 1871. 
Jefferson, born, 1743. 
Washington Irving, born, 1783. 



14) 4th Sunday in Lent. 



John 6. 



Day's length, 12h. 34m. 



4 


Suai. 


5 43 


6 17 


sets. 


5 


Men. 


5 42 


6 18 


7 8 


6 


Tnes. 


5 41 


6 19 


7 47 


7 


Wed. 


5 40 


6 20 


8 29 


8 


Thurs. 


5 39 


6 21 


9 19 


9 


Frid. 


5 38 


6 22 


10 2 


.0 


Sat. 


5 37 


6 23 


11 6 



Oliver Goldsmith, died. 1774. 

St. Irgernach. of Ireland, 550. 

Battle of Shiloh. 1862. 

St. Francis Xavier, Missionary, born. 1506. 

Louisiana admitted to the Union. 1812. 

Gen R. E. Lee. surrendered, 1865. 

St. Bademus, Abbot, Martyr, 376. 



15) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 



Day's length, 12h. 48m. 



11 


Sun. 


5 36 


6 24 


morn 


V2 


Mon. 


5 35 


6 25 


12 59 


13 


Tue.s. 


5 34 


6 26 


1 56 


14 


Wed. 


5 33 


6 27 


2 26 


15 


Thurs 


5 32 


6 28 


3 15 


16 


Frid. 


5 31 


6 29 


4 11 


17 


Sat. 


5 30 


6 30 


5 4 



Geo. Canning, born, 1770. 

First gun of Civil War fired. 1801. at Fort 

Sydney Lady Morgan, died, 1859. [Sumter. 

Lincoln assassinated, 1865, 

Geo. Calvert. Lord Baltimore, died. 1632. 

Battle of CuUoden, 1746. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, died, 1790. 



16) Palm Sunday. 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 13h, 



18 


l§uu. 


5 29 


6 31 


rises 


19 


xMou. 


5 28 


6 32 


7 45 1 


20 


Tues. 


5 27 


6 33 


8 36 


21 


Wed. 


5 26 


6 34 


9 30 


22 


Thurs. 


5 25 


6 34 


10 27 i 


23 


Frid. 


5 24 


6 36 


11 18 


24 


Sat. 


5 23 


6 37 


morn 



Palm Sunday. 

Battle of Lexington, 1775. 

E.Barton, -Maid of Kent," executed, 1534. 

Confed. victory at Plyuiouth, N. C, 1863. 

Madam De Stael, born 1766. 

Shakespeare, died, 1616. 

Oliver CromNvell, born, 1599. 



17) Easter Sunday 



Mark 16. 



Day's length, 13h. 16m. 



25 


Sun. 


5 23 


6 38 


12 51 


26 


Mon. 


5 21 


6 39 


1 50 


27 


Tues. 


5 20 


6 40 


2 14 


28 


Wed. 


5 19 


6 41 


2 bS 


29 


Thurs. 


5 18 


6 42 


3 36 


30 


Frid. 


5 17 


6 43 


3 58 



Easter Sunday. 

David Hume, born. 1711. 

Sir Wm. Jones. Poet and Scholar, dit-d, 

Monroe, born. 175S. [1794. 

King Edward IV', of England born, 1441. 

Louisiana purchased from France by U. S. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. -5616.- 
First davs Pesach.— 26. 



-6. Rosh Hodesh Nissan. -20. & 21. 
cK: 27. Last davs Pesach. 



For the Soiitliern States. 



11 



5tli Month. 



MAY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHJ^ES. 

New Moon 3d, lOh. .^2111. Evening. 

First Quarter lOd. 9h. Om. Evening. 

Full Moon 17d. Sh. 27ni. Evening. 

Last Quarter 25d. 6h. IGm. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month &Week 



Sun 



Sun 
sets. 



Moon 

r. & s. 

h. m. 



CHR01V0L.0GY 

— OF— 
7 11 /' O 72 II A T IJ VEN TS. 



1 Isat I 5 16 I 6 44 I 4 41 I St. Philip and St. James, Apostles. 



18) 1st Sunday after Easter. John 20. Day's lengtli, 13h. 30m. 

William Camden, borii, 1551. 

Discovery of the Holy Cross, by St. Helena. 

Dr. Isaac Barrow, Eng. divine, died, 1677. 

Emperor Justinian, born, 482. 

Humboldt, died, 1859. 

St. Benedict II, Pope, Confessor, 686. 

Stonewall Jackson, died 1863. 



2 


Sun. 


5 15 


6 45 


5 6 


3 


Alon. 


5 14 


6 46 


sets 


4 


lues. 


5 14 


6 46 


8 


5 


Wed. 


5 13 


6 47 


8 51 


G 


Thnrs. 


5 12 


6 48 


9 47 


7 


Frid. 


5 11 


6 49 


10 41 


8 


Sat. 


5 10 


6 50 


11 36 



19) 2d Sunday after Easter, 



John 10. 



Day's length, 13h. 40m, 



Sun. 


5 10 


6 50 


morn 


Mon. 


5 9 


6 51 


12 51 


Tnes. 


5 8 


6 52 


1 42 


Wed. 


5 7 


6 53 


2 15 


Ihurs. 


5 6 


6 54 


2 46 


Frid. 


5 5 


6 55 


3 34 


fci,it. 


5 5 


6 55 


4 12 



Battle of Spottsylvania, 1864. 
Pacific Kailroad finished, 1869. 
Madame Eicamire, died, 1849. 
St. Pancras, Martyr, 304. 
Jamestown, Ya., settled, 1607. 
Battle of Crown Point, 1575. 
St. Isidore, died, 1170. 



20) 3d Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 52m. 



SUBI. 


5 4 


6 56 


4 46 


Mon. 


5 3 


6 57 


rises 


Tues. 


5 2 


6 58 


8 2 


Wed. 


5 2 


6 58 


8 50 


Thnrs. 


5 1 


6 59 


9 38 


Frid. 


5 1 


6 59 


10 14 


Sat. 


5 


7 


10 44 



Sir William Petty, born, 1623. 

J. Jay, died, 1829. 

Napoleon I, elected Emperor, 1804. 

St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

Hawthorn, died, 1864. 

Columbus, died, 1506. 

Title of Brtronet first conferred. 1611. 



21) 4th Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 14h. 2m. 



Sun. 


4 59 


7 


1 


U 32 


Mon. 


4 58 


7 


2 


morn 


Tues. 


4 58 


7 


2 


12 16 


Wed. 


4 57 


7 


3 


1 52 


rhurs. 


4 57 


7 


3 


1 30 


Frid. 


4 56 


7 


4 


2 2 


Sat. 


4 56 


7 


4 


2 45 1 



Napoleon I, crowned King of Italy, 1805. 

Bishop Jewell, born, 1522. 

Battle of Winchester, 1804. 

Fort Erie captured, 1813. 

Dante, poet, born, 1265. 

Noah Webster, died, 1843. 

Paris burned, 1871. 



22) 5th Sunday after Easter. 



John 16. 



Day's length, 14h. Im. 



Sun. 


4 55 


7 


5 


3 25 


-Mon. 


4 55 


7 


5 


4 10 



Peter the Great of Kussia, born, 1672. 
Joan of Arc, burned, 1431. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646.— 0, Eosh Hodesh Si van. 
23. Lag beomer. 



12 


Elchard FroUcher 


s Almanac and 


Garden 


Manual 


1 


6th Month. 


JUNE. 




30 


Days. 




Calculated foe the 


Latitude of the Southern States 

at. 


i 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 2d. 8h. 35m. Morning. 

First Quarter ..... 9d. 6h. 6m. Morning. 

Full Moon . . .^ 16d. 8li. 18m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 24d. llh. 13m. Afternoon. 



DAY 

OF 

Month &Week 



Sun 

rises. 


Sun 

sets. 


Moon 

r. & s. 


h. m. 


h. m. 


li. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— or— 
JMPORTAST EVENTS. 



1 


Tues. 


4 54 


7 6 


4 40 


2 


Wed. 


4 54 


7 6 


sets 


3 


Thurs. 


4 53 


7 7 


8 47 


4 


Fhd. 


4 53 


7 7 


9 41 


5 


Sat. 


4 52 


'7 8 


10 28 



Battle of Seven Pines, 1862. 

Battle of Cold Harbor, 1864. 

Ascension Daj'. 

Lord E. Dudley marr'd A. Eob.sart, 1550. 

J. Pradier, Sculptor, died, 1852. 



23) 6th Sunday after Easter. 



John 15. Day's length, 14h. 16m. 



6 


8un. 


4 52 


7 8 


11 10 


7 


Mon. 


4 51 


7 9 


11 50 


8 


Tues. 


4 51 


7 9 


morn 


9 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 9 


12 44 





Thurs. 


4 51 


7 9 


1 10 


1 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


1 42 


L2 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 15 



Surrender of Memphis, Tenn., 1862. 

First American Cougress at New Yorlc, 1765. 

Emjoeror Nero, died, 68, Rome. 

Charles Dickens, died, 1870. 

Battle of Big Bethel, 1861. 

Sir John Franklin, died, 1847. 

Harriet Martiuean, Novelist, born, 1802. 



24) Whitsunday. 



John 14. 



Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



13 


Still. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 46 


14 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 19 


15 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 59 


16 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


rises 


17 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


8 30 


18 


Frid. 


4 49 


7 11 


9 10 


19 


Sat. 


4 49 


7 11 


9 39 



General Scott, born, 1786. 

St. Basil the Great, 379. 

Magna Charter, 1215. 

Edward I, of England, born, 1239. 

Battk of Bunker^Hill, 1775, 

War declared against Great Britain, 1812. 

Kearsage sunk the Alabama, 1864. 



25) Trinity Sunday. 



John 3. 



Day's length, 14h. 22m. 



20 


§1111. 


4 49 


7 11 


10 8 


St. Silverius, Pope and Martyr, 


538. 


21 


Mon. 


4 48 


7 12 


10 50 


Anthony Collins, born, 1676. 




22 


Tues. 


4 49 


7 11 


11 12 


Napoleon 1, abdicated, 1815, 




23 


Wed. 


4 49 


7 11 


11 50 


Battle of Solferino, 1859. 




24 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 11 


morn 


Corpus Cbristi, 




25 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


12 21 


Battle of Bannochburn. 




26 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


1 7 


Dr. Philip Doddrige, born, 1702 





26) 1st Sunday after Trinity 



Luke 16. Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



27 


Sun. 


4 50 


7 10 


1 22 


28 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 8 


29 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 42 


30 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 37 



John Murray, Publisher, died, 1843. 
Queen Victoria, crowned, 1838. 
St. Peter the Apostle, 68. 
Bishop Gavin Dunbar, died, 1547. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646,— 4. Eosh Hodesh Sivan, 
9. and 10. Shebuoth. 



For the Southern States. 



13 



7th Month. 



JULY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon Id. 4h. 46m. Afternoon. 

First Quarter 8d. 7h. 58m. Morning. 

Full Moon 15d. 9h. 48m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 24d. 2li. Im. Morning. 

New Moon 31d. 12h. 5m. Morning. 



DAY ^^"^ ^T 
" rises. BCts. 

Month &Week h. m. h. m. 


Moon 

r. &s. 

h. m. 


CHRONOL.OGY 

— OF— 

IM PORTANT E VENTS. 


1 

2 

3 


Thurs. 
Frid. 

Sat. 


4 50 
4 51 
4 51 


7 10 

7 9 
7 9 


sets. 

8 32 

9 18 


Battle of Malvem Hill, 1862. 
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Quebec founded, 1608. 



21) 2d Sunday after Trinity. Lul^e 14. Day's lengtii, llh. 18m. 



Sun. 


4 51 


7 


9 


9 50 


Mon. 


4 51 


7 


9 


10 29 


Tues. 


4 52 


7 


8 


11 


Wed. 


4 52 


7 


8 


11 30 


Thurs. 


4 52 


7 


8 


morn 


Frid. 


4 53 


7 


7 


12 43 


Sat. 


4 53 


7 


7 


1 15 



Independence of the United States, 1776. 
Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died, 1537. 
Th, More, Chancel, of Eng. beheaded, 1535. 
Dr. Tb. Blacklock, "the blind poet," died, 
John de la Fontaine, born, 1621. [1791. 

Zachary Taylor, died, 1850. 
John Calvin, theologian, born, 1509. 



28) 3d Sunday after Trinity, 



Luke 15. 



Day's length, 14li. 12m. 



Sun. 


4 54 


7 6 


1.51 


Mon. 


4 54 


7 6 


2 35 


Tues. 


4 55 


7 5 


3 26 


Wed. 


4 56 


7 4 


4 16 


Thurs 


4 56 


7 4 


rises 


Frid. 


4 57 


7 3 


7 58 


Sat. 


4 57 


7 3 


8 39 



J. Q. Adams, born 1767. 

Robt. Stevenson, engineer, etc., died, 1850. 

Dog days begin. 

John Hunter, eminent surgeon, born, 1728. 

St. Swithin's day. 

Great riot in New York city, 1863. 

Dr. Isaac Watts, born, 1647. 



29) 4th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 6. 



Day's length, 14h. 4m. 



18 


8un. 


4 58 


7 2 


9 19 


19 


Mon. 


4 59 


7 1 


9 51 


20 


Tues. 


4 59 


7 1 


10 30 


21 


Wed. 


5 


7 


10 52 


22 


Thurs. 


5 1 


6 59 


11 22 


23 


Frid. 


5 1 


6 59 


11 55 


24 


Sat. 


5 2 


6 58 


morn 



St, Symphorosia and 7 sons. Martyrs 
St. Vincent 'de Paul, confessor, 1660. 
Confed. Congress at Richmond, 1861. 
Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 
Urania discovered, 1824. 
First Olympiad, 776, B. C. 
Curran, born, 1750. 



120. 



3t>) 5th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 5. Day's length, 13h. 56m. 



25 


Sun. 


26 


Mon. 


27 


Tues. 


28 


Wed. 


29 


Thurs. 


30 


Frid. 


31 


Sat. 



12 42 

1 24 

2 19 

3 16 

4 6 
4 45 
sets. 



St. James the Great. 
Flood at Pittsburg, 1874. 
Atlantic cable, laid, 1866. 
Battle before Atlanta, Ga., 1864. 
Albert I, Emp. of Germany, born, 1289. 
Westfield Explosion, N. Y. Harbor, 1871. 
St. Ignatius Loyola, died, 1556. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646.— 3. & 4. Eosh Hodesh Tamuz. 



u 



Bichard FroUcher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



8th Month. 



AUGUST. 



31 Days. 



Calculated foe the Latitude of the Southeen States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 6d. 5h. 4im. Afternoon. 

Full Moon 14cl. Ih. ^n\. x^fternoon. 

Last Quarter 22d. 2h. 21m. Afternoon. 

New Moon 29d. 71i. Sim. MorniuQ-. 



day 

OF 

Month&Weekl li. m 



Ir 



bun 

ises. 



Siin 
sets. 

h. m. 



Moon 

r. &B. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPOTiTAlST EVF.STS. 



1 


§au. 


5 7 


6 53 


8 19 


2 


Mon. 


5 8 


6 52 


8 50 


a 


Tiies. 


5 9 


6 51 


9 22 


4 


Wed. 


5 10 


6 50 


9 52 


5 


Thurs. 


5 11 


6 49 


10 21 


6 


Frid. 


5 12 


6 48 


10 55 


7 


Sat. 


5 13 


6 47 


11 31 



8 


Sim. 


5 13 


6 47 


morn 


9 


Mon. 


5 14 


6 46 


12 20 


10 


Tues. 


5 15 


6 45 


1 3 


n 


Wed. 


5 16 


6 44 


1 51 


12 


Thurs. 


5 17 


6 48 


2 49 


13 


Frid. 


5 18 


6 42 


3 46 


14 


Sat. 


5 19 


6 41 


rises 



31) 6tli Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 5. Day's length, 13h. 46m. 

Harriet Lee. Novelist, died, 1851. 

Mehemed Ali. Pasha of Egypt, died, 1849. 

Crown Point taken, 1759. 

John Banim, Irish Novelist, died, 1842. 

First Atlantic Cable landed, 1858. 

Transfiguration of our Lord. 

Leonidas, Spartan Hero, slain 480, B. C. 

32) 7th Sunday after Trinity. Mark 8. Day's length, 13h. 34m. 



Fr. Hutcheson, Moral Phil., born, 1694. 

Issac Walton, born, 1593. 

Battle of Weisenburg. 1870. 

Viscount Piowland Hill, born, 1772. 

Pope Gregory IX, died 1241. 

Earthquake in Scotland, 1816. 

G.. Coleman, the elder, Dramatist, died 1794, 



33) 8th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 7. Day's length, 13h. 20m. 



Ascension of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Battle of Bennington, 1777. 

Frederick the Great, died, 1786. 

John, Earl Eussell, born, 1792, 

Battle of Gravelotte, 1870, 

Eobert Herriek, English Poet, born, 1591. 

Lady Marv Wortlev Montague, died, 1762 



34) 9th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 16. Day's length, 13h. 6m. 



Dr. F. J. Gall, founder of phrenology, died, 

Wallace, beheaded, 1305. [1828. 

St. Bartholomew, Apostle. 

25th or 27th. Landing of Cresar in England, 

Sir Eob. Walpole, born, 1676. [55 B. C. 

Dog days end. 

Leigh Hunt, died, 1859. 



35) 10th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 19. Day's length, 12h. 32m. 



15 


Sun. 


5 20 


6 40 


7 41 I 


16 


Mon. 


5 21 


6 39 


8 5 


17 


Tues. 


5 22 


6 38 


8 44 1 


18 


Wed. 


5 23 


6 37 


9 43 


19 


Thurs. 


5 24 


6 36 


10 13 


20 


Frid. 


5 25 


6 35 


10 43 


21 


Sat. 


5 26 


6 34 


11 18 



22 


Sllil. 


5 27 


6 33 


morn 


23 


Alou. 


5 28 


6 32 


1 13 


24 


Tues. 


5 29 


6 31 


1 9 


25 


Wed. 


5 30 


6 30 


2 5 


26 


Thurs. 


5 31 


6 29 


3 6 


27 


Frid. 


5 32 


6 28 


4 1 


28 


Sat. 


5 33 


6 27 


4 40 



29 
30 
31 



Sun. 

Mon. 
Tues. 



5 34 
5 35 
5 36 



6.26 
6 25 
6 24 



sets I John Locke, Philosopher, born, 1632. 
7 24 Union defeat, at Eichmond, Ky. 
7 56 1 John Bunyan, died. 1683. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646. 



Eosh Hodesh Ab. 



For the Southern States. 



15 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER, 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



First Quarter 5d. 

Full Moon 13d. 

Lasl Quarter . . . i 21d. 

New Moon 27d. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

2h. 

5h. 

12h. 

3h. 



35m. Morning. 
30m. Morning. 
35m. Morning. 
58m. Evening. 



day 

OF 

Montli &Week 



Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 



Sua 

sets. 

h. m. 



Moon 
r. &s. 

li. m. 



CHRONOIiOGY 

— or— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 Wed. 


5 37 


6 23 


8 SfD 


2 Thurs. 


5 38 


6 22 


9 10 


3 Fiid. 


5 39 


6 21 


9 42 


4 Sat. 


5 40 


6 20 


10 22 



Napoleon III. captured at Sedan, 
Great fire in London, 1666. 
Cromwell died, 1658. 
Pindar, Lyric poet, 518, B. C. 



1870. 



■5 


Snu. 


5 42 


6 18 


11 5 


6 


Mou. 


5 43 


6 17 


11 52 


7 


Tues. 


5 44 


6 16 


morn 


8 


Wed. 


5 45 


6 15 


12 38 


9 


Thurs. 


5 46 


6 14 


1 35 


10 


Prid. 


5 47 


6 13 


2 37 


11 


Sat. 


5 48 


6 12 


3 41 



36) 11th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 18. Day's length, 12h. 36m. 

Confederates entered Maryland, 1862. 
Geo, Alex. Stevens, writer, died, 1784- 
Independence of Brazil, 1822. 
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. 
James iV, of Scotland, killed, 1513. 
Mi\ngo Park, African Traveler, born, 1771. 
James Thomson, poet, born, 1700. 

3Y) 12th Sunday after Trinity. Mark 7. Day's length, 12h. 20m. 



St. Guy, Confessor, 11th century. 

Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, born, 1520. 

Uprising of the People of New Orleans against the usurping gort. 

Capture Harper's Ferry by r^'ewall JacKson, 

Gabriel Dan'l Fahrenheit, died 1736, [1862. 

Battle of Antietam, 1862. 

Gilbert Bishop Burnet, hist'an, born, 1643 



12 


Sun. 


5 50 


6 10 


4 43 


13 


Mon. 


5 51 


6 9 


rises 


14 


Tues. 


5 52 


6 8 


7 5 


15 


Wed. 


5 53 


6 7 


8 7 


16 


Thurs. 


5 54 


6 6 


8 43 


17 


Frid. 


5 55 


6 5 


9 28 


18 


Sat. 


5 56 


6 4 


10 16 



38) 13th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 10. Day's length, 12h. 6m. 



First battle of Paris, 1870. 

A-lexander the Great, born, 356, B. C. 

St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Beginning of Autumn. 

Wm. Upcott, Manusc. Collec, died, 1845. 

Pepin, King of France, 768. 

Pacific Ocean discovered, 1513. 



19 


Sun. 


5 57 


6 3 


11 7 


20 


Mon. 


5 58 


6 2 


morn 


21 


Tues. 


5 59 


6 1 


12 44 


22 


Wed. 


6 


6 


1 


23 


Thins. 


6 1 


5 59 


2 1 


24 


Frid. 


6 2 


5 58 


3 2 


25 


Sat. 


6 3 


5 57 


4 6 



39) 14th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 17. Day's length, llh. 52m. 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Sun. 

Mon. 
Tues. 
Wed. 
Thurs. 



5 56 


5 9 


5 55 


sets 


5 54 


6 49 


5 53 


7 42 


5 52 


8 31 



Saints Cyprian and Justina, Martyrs, 304. 

Strassburg fell, 1870. 

Sir Wm. Jones, Oriental Scholar, born, 1746. 

Michaelmas Day. 

Yorktown invested, 1781. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5640.— 1. Eosh Hodesh Elul.— 
30. Kosh Hashonah 5647. 



■ t l Jj ! Jl > ^,»H-;L»U.JM i^l 



16 



Eldiard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Mannal 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER, 



31 Day 



Calculated fob the Latitude of the Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter M. 5h. 13m. Evening. 

Full Moon 12d. lOh. 3m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 20d. 9h. 20m. Morning. 

New Moon ., 27d. Ih. 55m. Morning. 

DAY I ^^^^ 1 S"^ I ^^T"" ! CHRONOLOGY 

Month&Weekl li. m. I h. m. I h. m. I IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



Frid. 
Sat. 



6 9 
6 10 



5 51 
5 50 



9 21 
10 14 



Fulton's first Steamboat trip, 1807. 
Andre executed as a spy, 1780. 



40) 15th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 6. Day's length, llh. 38m. 

Black Hawk, died, 1838. 

Battle of Gernaautown, 1777. 

Horace W-alpole, boru, 1717. 

JeuDy Lind, born, 1820. 

Margaret, Maid of Norway, died 1290. 

Battle of Perry ville, Ky., 1862. 

Great fire in Chicago, 1871. 

i 41) 16th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 7. Day's length, llh. 22m. 



3 


8uu. 


6 11 


5 49 


11 14 


4 


Mon. 


6 12 


5 48 


11 59 


5 


Tues. 


6 14 


5 46 


morn 


6 


Wed. 


6 15 


5 45 


12 37 


7 


Thurs. 


6 16 


5 44 


1 30 


8 


Frid. 


6 17 


5 43 


2 20 


9 


Sat. 


6 18 


5 42 


3 16 



SWil. 


6 19 


5 41 


4 13 


Mon. 


6 20 


5 40 


5 5 


Tues. 


6 21 


5 39 


rises. 


Wed. 


6 23 


5 37 


6 50 


Thurs. 


6 24 


5 36 


7 53 


Frid. 


6 25 


5 35 


8 41 


Sat. 


6 25 


5 35 


9 23 



Benjamin West, Painter, born, 1738. 

America discovered, 1492. 

St. Vvllfrid. Bishop of York, 709. 

Battle of Queenstown. 1812. 

Battle of Jena, 1806. 

Virgil, Latin Poet, born, 70 B. C. 

Marie Antoinette beheaded, 1793. 



42) 17th Sunday after Trinity 



Luke 14. Day's length, llh. 8m. 



17 


Sun. 


6 26 


5 34 


10 1 


18 


Mon. 


6 27 


5 33 


10 38 


19 


Tues. 


6 28 


5 32 


11 30 


20 


Wed. 


6 29 


5 31 


morn 


21 


Thurs. 


6 30 


5 30 


12 11 


22 


Frid. 


6 32 


5 28 


1 4 


23 


Sat. 


6 33 


5 27 


-2 3 



Burgoyne surrendered, 1777. 

Last State Lottery drawn inEugl. 1826. 

('ornwaliis surrendered. 1781. 

M. Dahl, Swed. Portrait Painter, died, 1743. 

Battle of Trafa'gar, 1805. 

Charles Martel, died. 741. 

Dr. John Jortin, Critic, born, 1698. 



43) 18th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 17. Day's length, lOh. 52m. 

Daniel Webster, died, 1852. 

Dr. James Beattie, Poet, born, 1735. 

Hogarth, died, 1765. 

Cuba discovered. 1492. 

Battle at White Plains. 1776. 

Surrender of Metz, 1870. 

Solomon's Temple dedicated, 1004 B. C. "" 

44) 19th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, lOh. 3Sm. 



24 


§HU. 


6 34 


5 26 


3 2 


25 


Mon. 


6 35 


5 25 


4 1 


26 


Tnes. 


6 36 


5 24 


4 54 


27 


Wed. 


6 37 


5 23 


sets. 


28 


Thur.<. 


6 38 


5 22 


6 38 


29 


Frid. 


6 39 


5 21 


7 31 


30 


Sat. 


6 40 


5 20 


8 23 



31 is MM. I 6 41 I 5 19 i 9 16 I All Hallow Eve. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5617.— 3. Zom Gedalyah. 



For the SontJwrii Slate.ii. 



17 



lltll Moiitll 



NOVEMBER. 



Days 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southeen States. 



MOON'vS PHASES. 

First (»)iiarter ^. . . . 3(1. llh. 

Fall Moon lid. llh. 

Last Quarter 18d, 5h. 

New Moon 25d. Ih. 



dL5m. Morniiii*'. 
46m. Morning. 
20m, Afternoon. 
58m. xlfternoon. 



Month &Weulv 



Siiu 
li. m. 



Suu 

sets. 



Moon 
r. <S; 9. 

li. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 
7 M I' on TA S T E lEN TS. 



Mon. 


6 42 


5 18 


10 5 


Tues. 


6 43 


5 17 


10 52 


Wed. 


6 44 


5 16 


11 39 


Thnrs. 


() 45 


5 15 


morn 


Frid. 


45 


5 15 


12 30 


Sdt. 


G 46 


5 14 


1 27 



All Saints Day. 

All Sonis Day. 

Malachy, Archbishop of Armnf^h, 1148. 

George Pefibody, died, 1869. 

The American 74 lanncht^d, 1782. 

Ba tie of Port Koyal, 1861. 



45) 20th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, lOh. 26m. 



7 


Sun. 


6 47 


5 13 


2 25 


8 


Mon. 


6 48 


5 12 


3 23 


9 


Tues. 


6 49 


5 11 


4 25 


10 


Wed. 


6 50 


5 10 


5 22 


11 


Thurs. 


6 51 


5 9 


rises. 


12 


Frid. 


6 52 


5 8 


6 42 


13 


Sat. 


6 53 


5 7 


7 39 



John Kyrle, "The Man of Boss," died, 1724. 

Corttz entered Mexico, 1519. 

Great tire in Boston. 1872. 

Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born, 570. 

Martinmas. 

Sherman left Atlanta. 1864. 

French entered Vienna, 1805. 



46) 21st Sunday after Trinity 



John 4. 



Day's length, lOh. 12m. 



14 


Sun. 


6 54 


5 


6 


8 40 


15 


Mou. 


6 54 


5 


6 


9 42 


16 


Tues. 


6 55 


5 


5 


10 47 


17 


Wed. 


6 56 


5 


4 


11 47 


18 


Thnrs. 


6 57 


5 


3 


morn 


19 


Frid. 


6 57 


5 


3 


12 34 


20 


Sat. 


6 58 


5 


2 


1 34 



Sir Chas. Lyell, Geologist, born, 1797. 

John Keppler, great Astronomer, died, 1630. 

Tiberius, Roman Em);eror, born, 42 B. C. 

Snez Canal opened 1869. 

Fort Lee taken by the British, 1776. 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow, 1231. 

Thomas Chatterton, Poet, born, 1752. 



47) 22d Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 18. Day's length, lOh. 2m. 



Pres-entation of the Blessed Virgin. 
Professor Dugald Steward, born, 1753. 
Th. Henderson, Prof, of Astron., died 1844. 
Battle of Lookout Mountain, 1863. 
Evacuation of New York, 1783. 
John Elwes. noted Miser, died, 1789. 
Steam Printin<s 1814. 



21 


Sun. 


6 59 


5 1 


2 38 


22 


Mon. 


7 


5 1 


3 38 


23 


Tues. 


7 1 


5 


4 37 


24 


Wed. 


7 1 


4 59 


5 


25 


Thurs. 


7 2 


4 58 


sets. 


26 


Frid. 


7 2 


4 58 


5 54 


27 


Sat. 


7 3 


4 57 


6 39 



48) 1st Sunday in Advent. 



28 


Sun. 


7 3 


4 57 


7 31 


29 


Mon. 


7 3 


4 57 


8 23 


30 


Tnes. 


7 4 


4 56 


9 10 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 9h. 54m. 



Washington Irving, died, 1859. 

Sir Philip Sidney, Poet, born, 1554. 

U. S. took possession of Louisiana, 1503. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5647.— 28. 
2 



Eosh Hodesh Kislev. 



18 



Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER. 



31 Davs. 



Calculated for the Latitude or the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 3d. *» 9h. 5m. Morning. 

Full Moon lid. 4h. 10m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 18d. Ih. 19m. Morning. 

New Moon ; 25d. 4h. 34m. Morning. 



Sun 
rises. 



DAY 

OF 

Month &Weekl h. m. 1 li 



Sun 

sets. 



Moon 

r. & s. 



CHROXOL.OGY 

— OF — 

IMP OR TANT EVEN TS. 



1 


Wed. 


7 5 


4 55 


10 16 


2 


Thurs. 


7 G 


4 54 


11 35 


3 


Frid. 


7 6 


4 51 


morn 


4 


Sat. 


7 7 


4 53 


12 20 



Princess A. Comnena, Historian, born 1083. 
Heruan Cortez, died 1547. 
Robert Bloonifield, Poet, born, 1776. 
Pope John XXII, died, 1334. 



49) 


2d Sunday 


in Advent. 


Matth. 21. Day's length, 9h. 46m. 


5 


Swii. 


7 7 


4 53 


1 23 


Carlyle, born, 1795. 


6 


Mou. 


7 7 


4 53 


2 32 


St. Nicholas, Archbishop of Myra, 342. 


7 


Tues. 


7 8 


4 52 


3 30 


Cicero, Roman orator, assassinated, 43 B. C. 


8 


Wed. 


7 8 


4 52 


4 00 


Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virgin. 


9 


Thurs. 


7 8 


4 52 


4 35 


Milton, born, 1608. 


10 


Frid. 


7 9 


4 51 


5 48 


Louis Napoleon, elected President, 1848. 


11 


Sat. 


7 9 


4 51 


rises. 


Louis, Prince of Conde, died 1686. 



50) 3d Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 11. 



Day's length, 9h. 42m. 



12 


Sun. 


7 9 


4 51 


6 32 


13 


Mon. 


7 9 


4 51 


7 33 


14 


lues. 


7 10 


4 50 


8 47 


15 


Wed. 


7 10 


4 50 


9 50 


16 


Thurs. 


7 10 


4 50 


10 56 


17 


Frid. 


7 10 


4 50 


11 59 


18 


Sat. 


7 11 


4 49 


morn 



St. Columba, Abbot in Ireland, 584. 

Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862. 

Washington, died, 1799. 

David Don, Botanist, died 1841. 

Great Fire in New York, 1835. 

Ludw. Beethoven, emin. comp., born, 1770. 

St. Winebald, Abbot and Confessor, 760. 



51) 4th Sunday in Advent. 



John 1. 



Day's length, 9h. 38m. 



19 


Sum. 


7 11 


4 49 


12 12 


20 


Mon. 


7 11 


4 49 


1 18 


21 


Tues 


7 12 


4 48 


2 23 


22 


Wed. 


7 11 


4 49 


3 25 


23 


Thurs. 


7 11 


4 49 


4 31 


24 


Frid. 


7 11 


4 49 


5 46 


25 


Sat. 


7 11 


4 49 


sets. 



Capt. W. Ed. Parry, Arct. Nav., boi-n 1790. 

Secession ord. passed in S. Carolina, 1860. 

St. Thomas, Apostle. 

Emp. Vitellius, beheaded at Rome, 69 A. D. 

Newton, born, 1642. 

Treaty of Ghent, 1814. 

Nativity of our Lord. Christmas Day. 



52) Sunday after Christmas. 



Luke 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 40m. 



26 


Sun. 


7 10 


4 50 


6 10 


27 


Mon. 


7 10 


4 50 


6 47 


28 


Tues. 


7 10 


4 50 


7 36 


29 


Wed. 


7 9 


4 51 


8 21 


30 


Thurs. 


7 9 


4 51 


9 12 


31 


Frid. 


7 9 


4 51 


9 42 



Battle of Trenton, 1776. 

St. John, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Macauley, died, 1859. 

Union repulsed at Vicksburg, Miss., 1862. 

Titus, Roman Emperor, born, 41 A. D. 

Battle of Murfreesboro, 1862. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5647.— 22. 
28. Kosh Hodesh Thebet. 



Chanukah. 



For the Southern States. 19 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

The size depends upon the i)uri)Oses for whieh it is intended: 
whether the family is hirj^e or small, and the lime whieh can be de- 
voted to its cultivation. The most suitable soil for a garden is a light 
loam. When the soil is too heavy, it ought to be made light by apply- 
ing stable manure, and working up the ground thoroughly. Trench- 
ing as done in Europe, or North, is not advisable, at least where there 
is any coco, as by trenching the roots of this pest will get so dee])ly 
iiKiorporated with the soil that it will be very hard afterwards to get 
rid of it. Exposure towards the east is desirable. If there are one or 
more large trees in the garden, or on the immediate outside, their 
shade can be used in which to sow Celery, Cabbage and other seeds 
during the hot summer months, which will be an advantage. The 
seed beds for this purpose should be so arranged as to receive only 
the morning or evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that the 
ground should be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible to raise 
good vegetables. The most reliable manure for general purposes is 
well decomposed stable or barnyard manure. Cow manure wdll suit 
best for light, sandy soil, and horse manure for heavy, stiff clay lands. 
For special purposes, Peruvian Guano, Blood Fertilizer, Kaw Bone, 
Cotton Seed Meal and other commercial manures may be employed 
with advantage. Of late years most gardeners whov/ork their land 
with a plow, use Cow Peas as a fertilizer with excellent results. They 
are sown broadcast at the rate of li bushels to the acre, and when 
large enough they are turned under. Where the land is very sandy, 
cotton seed meal has the most lasting effect. For quick growing crops, 
such as Melons, Cucumbers, etc., the Blood Fertilizer and Guano a|)- 
plied in the hills are very good. Soap suds are good for Celery; it is 
astonishing to perceive the difference in the size of those stalks which 
are watered every few days with the suds, and others on the same 
ground which are not. Wood ashes are best for Peas, either used as 
a top dressing when the Peas just come out of the ground, or else 
sprinkled in the rows when planted. The New Orleans market 
gardeners raise as line vegetables as can be produced anywhere ; in 
fact, some varieties cannot be excelled, and very few gardeners use 
anything but stable manure. 

Rotation of Crops is another important item. Beets, Carrots 
and other roots should not be grown in succession on the same ground, 
but should be changed to those v/hich grow above ground, such as 
Lettuce, Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, good ground and good culti- 
vation are essential in order to raise good vegetables. When plants 
are up the ground should be stirred frequently ; weeds ought not to 
be suffered to go into seed, but should be destroyed as soon as they 
appear. Hoeing and working the young crops during dry weather 
is very beneficial, because the weeds are then easily killed, and hoe- 
ing the ground will make it retain moisture better than if it were left 
alone. 



20 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




z::/Mr!/fMy; Zr/^ ''11 ''!!'!' 



•piiiiiiiiiS 



THE HOT BED. 



Owing to the open winters in the South, hot beds are not so much 
used as in tlie North, except to raise such tender plants as Egg-Plants, 
Tomatoes and Peppers. There is little forcing of vegetables done 
here, except as regards Cucumbers and Lettuce; and, if we do not 
have any hard frosts, the latter does better in the open ground than 
under glass. To make a hot bed is a very simple thing. Any one who 
has the use of tools can make the wooden frame ; the sashes may be 
obtained from any sash factory. J consider a wooden frame from five 
to six feet wide and ten feet six inches long, a very good size. It 
should be at least six inches higher at the back than in the front, 
and covered by three sashes 3i-x5 feet. The manure ought not to be 
over one month old ; it should be thrown together in a heap, and when 
commencing to heat, be worked over with a fork, and all the long and 
short manure evenly mixed. In this State the ground is generally 
low, and to retain the heat of the manure for a longer time it is best 
to put the manure on top of the ground^— that is, make a bank two 
feet longer and two feet wider than the frame. Keep the edges 
straight and the corners firm ; when thrown up about eighteen inches 
trample the manure down to six or eight inches, then put on another 
layer of eighteen inches and trample down again ; place thereon the 
frame and sash, and fill in six inches of good earth. After about five 
days stir the ground to kill the weeds which may have come up, then 
sow the seeds. In lower Louisiana the ground is too wet to dig out 
eighteen inches deep, throw in the manure and trample down as re- 
commended in the North ; by a few hard rains, such as we fre- 
quently have in winter, the manure would become so soaked beneath 
the ground that the heat would be gone. Another advantage, when 
the frame is put above the ground, is, that it will go down with 
the manure gradually, and there remains always the same space 
between the glass and the ground. If the ground is dug out and the 
manure put into the frame, the ground will sink down so low after a 
short time that the sun will have little effect upon it, and plants will 
become spindly. 



Fo7' the Southern States. 21 



SOWING SEEDS, 



Some seeds are sown at once where they are to remain and mature. 
Others are sown in seed beds and transplanted afterwards. Seeds 
should be covered according- to their sizes, a covering of earth twice 
the size of the seed is about the maximum. Some seeds, such as 
Beans, Corn and Peas, can be covered from one to two inches, and 
they will come up well. Here is a dilTeronce again : Wiinkled Peas 
and Sugar Corn have to be covered lighter and more carefully than 
Marrowfat Peas or the common varieties of Corn. It depends upon 
the nature of the soil, season of the year. etc. For instance, in heavy 
wet soil seeds have to be covered lighter tlian in sandy light ground. 
Seeds which are sown during summer in the open ground, such as 
Beets and Carrots, should be soaked over night in water and rolled 
in ashes or plaster before sowing; they will come up quicker. When 
they are sown in a seed bed, the ground should be light enough not 
to bake after a rain. Some varieties of seeds require shade when 
sown during the summer, such as Cauliflower, Celery and Lettuce. 
Care should be taken to have the shade at least three feet from the 
ground, and shade only after the sun has been on the bed for two or 
three hours, and remove again early in the afternoon, so the plants 
may become sturdy. If too much shaded they will be drawn up, long- 
legged, and not fit to be set out in the open ground. The most suc- 
cessful cabbage planters in this neighborhood sow their seeds in the 
open ground, towards the end of July and during August, and give 
them no shade, but water and keep the ground moist from the day of 
sowing till the plants are transplanted. Seeds should be sown thinly 
in the seed bed. ,If plants come up too thickly they are apt to damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted during the hot months before 
sowing, according to directions given for June. 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early fall 
.months, the ground should be prepared in advance, and the seed sown 
just before or during a rain. Small i)ieces of ground, of course, can 
be sown at any time and watered afterwards. For covering all kinds 
of seeds, a fork is preferable to a rake ; with either implement, care 
must be taken not to cover the seeds too deep. Beans, Peas and Corn 
are covered with the hoe. Some line seeds, such as Thyme or Tobacco 
are covered enough when pressed with the back of the spade to the 
ground. The seedsman is often blamed for selling seeds which have 
not come up, when the same are perfectly good, but, perhaps, 
through ignorance the party by whom they were sown, placed them 
too deep or too shallow in the ground, or the ground may have been 
just moist enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At 
other times washing rains after sowing beat the ground and form a 
crust that the seeds are not able to penetrate, or, if there is too much 
fresh manure in the ground, it will burn the seed, and destroy its 
vitality. 

When seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, are 
planted before it is warm enough, they are very ai)t to rot if it rains. 



22 



Richard Ft^otscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



The foliowing Tables will be found useful to the Gardener, Farmer 
and Amateur. 

QUANTITY OF SEED USUALLY SOWN UPON AN ACEE- 



Beans, Dwarf, in drills. . . ..li Bushels. 
Beans, Pole, in hills. ..... 10 to 12 Qts. 

Beets, in drills . , .4 to 5 lbs. 

Broom Corn, in hills. 8 to 10 Qts. 

Buckwheat , . 1 Bushel. 

Cabbage, in beds, to transplant. ... 1 lb. 

Carrots, in drills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Chinese Sugar Cane. 12 Qts. 

Clover, Red, alone 12 to 15 lbs. 

Clover, White, alone 10 to 12 lbs. 

Clover, Lucerne or Alfalfa 12 lbs. 

Corn, in hills 8 to 10 Qts. 

Corn, for soiling 3 Bushels. 

Cucumber, in hills 2 lbs. 

Hemp I2 Bushels. 

Mustard, broadcast. . 2 Bushel. 

Melon, Mnsk, in hills. 2 to 3 lbs. 

Melon, Water, in hills. . . 3 to 4 lbs. 

Millet, broadcast 1 Bushel. 



Oats, broadcast .2 to 3 Bushels. 

Onion, in drills .5 to 6 lbs. 

Onion, for Sets, in drills ... 20 lbs. 

Onion, Sets, in drills. .6 to 12 Bushels. 

Parsnip, in drills 4 to 6 lbs. 

Peas, in drills I3 Bushels. 

Peas, broadcast 3 Bushels. 

Potato (cut tubers). 10 Bushels. 

Pumpkin, in hills 4 to 6 lbs. 

Radish, in drills 8 to 10 lbs. 

Sage, in drills 8 to 10 lbs. 

Salsify, in drills 8 to 10 lbs. 

Spinach, in drills. ...... 10 to 12 lbs. 

Squash, (bush var.,) in hills. .4 to 6 lbs. 
Squash, (running var.,) in hills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Tomato, to transplant J lb. 

Turnip, in drills 5 to 2 lbs. 

Turnip, broadcast 1 to 2 lbs. 



QUANTITY OF SEEDS REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN NUMBER OF PLANTS. 



Number of Hills or Length of Drills 

Asparagus 1 oz. to 60 feet of drill, 

Beet..'^ 1 " 50 

Beans, Dwarf. . .1 qt. to 100 

Beans, Pole 1 qt. to 150 hills, 

Carrot 1 oz. to 100 feet of drill. 

Cucumber 1 oz. to 75 hills. 

Corn 1 qt. to 200 hills 

Endive .1 oz. to 100 feet of drill 

Leek.. .1 '• 100 

Melon, Water 1 oz. to 30 hills 

Melon, Musk .1 " 60 " 

Okra 1 oz. to 40 feet of drill 

Onion 1 "100 

Onion, Sets, small, 1 qt. to 40 ft. of drill 

Parsley .1 oz. to 125 feet of drill 

Note. — The above calculations are 
Summer months, twice the quantity 
amount of plants. 



. ;. Xnmber of Hills or Lengtli of Drills. 

Parsnip 1 oz. to 200 feet of drill. 

: Peas 1 qt. to 100 

Pumpkin ............. 1 oz. to 40 hills. 

Radish 1 oz. to 100 feet of drill. 

Salsify ..... .1 " 70 

Spinach. ... ...1 " 100 

i Squash 1 oz. to 75 hills. 

Turnip 1 oz. to 150 feet of drill. 

Cabbage 1 oz. to 2000 plants. 

Cauliflower ..1 ■• 2000 " 

Celery.. ...1 " 3000 " 

Egg Plant.. 1 " 1000 " 

Lettuce., .1 " 3000 " 

, Pepper ...1 " 1000 " 

. Tomato .1 ■' 1500 " 

made for the Spring; if sown during the 
of seed will be required for the same 



Table showinG; amount of several varieties of G-rass Seed necessary for an Acre, 
and the number of Pounds in a Bushel. 



No. of lbs. 

to bushel. 

Barley 48 

Blue Grass. . .. .14 

Orchard Grass . 14 

Red Top Grass .14 

Hungarian Grass .48 

Millet. German 50 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass 12 

Rescue Grass .14 

Timothy 45 

Italian Rye Grass. ... .20 

Bermuda Grass — 

Red Clover 60 



Quantity for 

One Acre. 

2 Bush. 

2 " 

2 " 

2 " 
1 " 

5 " 
I3 " 
4 " 

3 " 
3 lbs. 

10 •• 



No. of lbs. 
to bushel. 

White Clover 60 

Alfalfa Clover. 60 

Johnson Grass. .25 

Engli.sh Rye Grass . . 20 

Rye 56 

Red Rust Proof Oats . 32 

Buckwheat. 56 

Wheat .60 

Sorghum . 50 

Meadow Fescue Grass 24 
Honey Grass, (Holcus 
lauatus 7 



Quantity for 

One Acre. 

8 lbs. 

8 " 
30 " 
50 " 

1^ Busk. 

Iri " 
1 
U " 

5 lbs. 
Ih Bush. 



For the Southern States. 



23 



Descriptive Catalogue of Vegetable Seeds. 

ARTICHOKE. 

Artichaut (Fr,), Arttschoke (Ger.), Alcachofa (Sp.). 




Green Globe Artichoke. 




Early Campania. 

L.arg:e Oreen Olobe. This is a very popular vegetable in the 
South, and much esteemed by the native as well as the foreign popu- 
lation from the South of Europe. It is extensively cultivated for the 
New Orleans market. It is best propagated from suckers which come 
up around the large plants. Take them off during the fall and early 



2i Richard Frotscher's AJmaraw and Garden Manual 



winter months ; plant them four feet apart each way. Every fall the 
ground should be manured and spaded or plowed between them. If 
planted by seed, sow them in drills during winter or early spring, 
three inches apart and one foot from row to row ; cover with about 
one-half inch of earth. The following fall the plants can be trans- 
planted and cultivated as recommended above. The seeds I offer are 
imported by me from Italy, and of superior quality ; I can also furnish 
sprouts or plants in the fall of the year. 

Early Casaipatiia. k.\\ early variety imported by me from 
Italy and which fruited for the first time the past season. The cut 
represents as it grows, and has been taken from a branch brought to 
me; it is flatter at the base than the Globe ; being very early I con- 
sider it quit^ an acquisition, 

ASPARAGUS. 

AsPERGE (Fr.\ Spaegel, (Ger.), Esparagos (Sp.). 

Purple Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated in the 
South ; not that it is not liked well enough, but from the fact that it 
does not succeed as well as in more Northern latitudes. It seems that 
it is short-lived, the roots giving out soon or throwing up very small 
shoots. 

The ground should be well manured and prepared before either 
the roots or seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing of seed is 
preferable. Eoots are generally imported from the North, and I have 
found that the roots raised here, one year old, are as strong as those 
received from the North three years old. Plant the seed in early spring. 
Soak over night in water ; plant in rows, or rather hills, one foot apart 
and. two feet between ; put from four to five seeds in each hill ; when 
well up thin out to two plants. The following winter, when the stalks 
are cut off, cover with a heavy coat of well rotted manure and a sprink- 
ling of salt ; fishbrine will answer the same purpose. In the spring- 
fork in the manure between the rows and keep clean of weeds. The 
same treatment should be repeated every year. The bed should not 
be cut before being three years established. Care must be taken not 
to cut the stalks too soon in the fall of the year — not until we have had 
a frost. If cut before, it will cause the roots to throw up young shoots, 
which will w^eaken them. 

BUSH BEANS. 
Cultiwe, 

Place in rows eighteen inches apart. Plant from end of February, 
and for succession, every two or three weeks to May. During June 
and July. Bush Beans planted in this latitude will not produce much. 
August and September are good months in which to plant again ; they 
will produce abundantly till killed by the frost. Do not cover the 
seeds more than two inches. 



For the Southern States. 



25 



POLE BEANS. 

Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has become 
warm in spring. Strong poles ought to be set in the ground from four 
to six feet apart, and the ground drawn around them before the seed 
is planted. It is always best to plant after a rain and with the eye of 
the bean down. The other varieties can be planted flat, and not more 
than three to four feet apart, and hilled after they are up. Do not 
cover the seeds more than two inches ; one inch is enough for the 
Southern Prolific. 

BEANS.— (l)w ARE, Snap or Bush.) 
Haricots (Fr.),BoHNE (Ger.), Frijolenano (Sp.). 



New- 



ExTRA Early Six Weeks, or 

ington Wonder. 
Early Valentine Eed Speckled 
Early Mohawk Six Weeks. 
Early Yellow Six Weeks. 
German Dwarf Wax. 
White Kidney. 



Red Speckled French. 

Early China Eed-Eye. 

Red Kidney. 

Dwarf Golden Wax (new). 

Best of All. 

Improved Valentine. 



Extra Early Six l^eeRs, or Newing^ton Wonder, is very 
early, but the pods are small and round. Good for family use. 

Early Valentine, one of the best varieties ; pods round, tender 
and quite productive ; not much planted for the market. Excellent 
for shipping. 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks. This is a long podded variety, 
and very hardy. It is used to a large extent for the market for the 
first planting ; very productive. 

Early Yellow Six Weeks. This is the most popular sort 
among market gardeners. Pods flat and long ; a very good bearer, 
but not so good for shipping as the Mohawk or Valentine. 

German I>\varf IVax. A new variety which is unsurpassed 
as a snap bean. Pods are of a wax color and have no strings ; quite 
productive. Has come into general cultivation ; cannot be too highly 
recommended. 

White Kidney. A good strong growing variety, not much 
planted. 

Red Speckled French is another strong growing variety, 
planted a good deal for the New Orleans market as a second crop, 
being about ten days later than the Mohawk and Yellow Six Weeks. 
It is hardy and productive. 

Early China Red-Eye. Early and of good quality, but not 
very popular. 

Red Kidney. This variety is largely planted for the New 
Orleans market. It is a coarse growing variety, and much used for 
shelling when the pods turn yellow, so that the beans are well 
developed, but yet soft. 



26 



Fiichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Best of all Bean, ^ natural size. 



Dwaif Golden Wax Bean. 



I>\%'arf Golden Tf^ax. (New.) A dwarf variety with flat pods, 
longer than the Dwarf German Wax ; entirely stringless and white, 
mottled with purplish red. This variety will come into general culti- 
vation, and will in time take the place of the blaciN: seeded Wax, being 
earlier and more productive. 

Best of All. A new variety from Germany of great merit, intro- 
duced here by me. It is green podded, long and succulent; it is pro- 
lific and well flavored. An excellent variety for shipping and family 
use. It is not quite so early as the Mohawk, but is of superior quality 



For the Southern Slates. 



27 



for shipi)ing-, cand, therefore, is almost the only kind planted here for 
that purpose. The cut is a good representation as it grows ; it shoAvs 
only two-thirds of its natural size. Can not be too highly recom- 
mended. I expect to have a full supply this year. 

Improved ValentiBie. This variety has all the good qualities 
of the old Valentine ; only, it is ten days earlier, a great consideration 
wdien idanted for the market; it will su})ercede the old variety of 
Valentine. 

Note, — I hixd the above variety thoroughly tested by over fifty growers; 
had it plauted with ten other varieties,, and it came into bearing as soon as the 
Yellow Six WeelvS and Mohawk, It is very prolific. 



BEANS.— Pole ok Running. 
Haricots a. Rames (Fr.), Stangen-Bohnen (Ger.), Frijol Vastago (Sp.). 



Large Lima. 
Carolina or Sewee. 
Horticultural or Wren's Egg. 
Dutch Case Knife. 



German Wax or Butter. 
Southern Prolific. 
Crease Back. 



Liar^eXliiBa. A well known and excellent variety. It is the 
best shell bean known. Should have rich ground, and plenty room 
to grow. ' 

CaroSiiia or Sei;*^ee. A variety similar to the Lima; the only 
difference is, the seeds and pods are smaller. It is generally culti- 
vated, being more productive than the Large Lima. : 



HorticsiStiii'ai ar Wreei's Eg-§-, does not grow very strong ; 
ut six inches long, which are roundish and very 



bears well, pods abo 
tender. 



I>Ht«!h Case Mnife. A very good pole bean; it is early; pods 
broad and long, somewhat turned towards the end. 

Crerinan \¥ax. This is a fine variety, and has the same good 
qualities as the German Dw^arf Wax. Pods have a waxy appearance ; 
very succulent and tender. 

^outliern Prolific. No variety will continue longer in bearing 
than this. It stands the heat of the summer better than any other, 
and is planted to succeed the other kinds. It is a very strong grower ; 
pods about seven inches long and fiat ; seeds are dark yellow or rather 
light brown. It is the standard variety for the New Orleans market, 
for late spring and summer. 

Crease Back. A variety of Pole Beans which has been culti- 
vated in the South for a long time, but has never come into the trade 
till introduced by me. It is an excellent bean, earlier than the 



28 



Bicliard FroUcher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



"Southern Prolific." Seeds white; 
pods round, with a crease in the 
back, from which the name. It is 
a good grower, bears abundantly, 
and if shipped, will keep better than 
most other kinds. It sells better 
in the spring than any other for 
shipping purposes ; and when in 
season, it can hot be sur^Dassed. For 
early summer, the Southern Prolific 
is preferable, standing the heat bet- 
ter. Some two years ago I received 
half a bushel from near Mobile, Ala., 
and all the beans of this variety 
about here can be traced back to that 
half bushel. I supplied two growers 
in Georgia where it was not known 
at that time. I expect to have a full 
supply this season. There is a light 
brown bean, streaked and mottled 
with dark brown and black of the 
same name ; but it is not equal to the 
white variety. In some localities this 
kind is called " Calico Crease Back." 
The white seeded variety is also 
known in some secti(»ns by the name 
of "Fat Horse." 



ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Marais (Fr.), Puff-Bohne, 
(Ger.), HabaComun (Sp.). 

Broad IrViiidsor. Not so much 
cultivated here as in some parts of 
Europe. It is much liked by the 
people of the Southern part of 
Europe. Ought to be planted during 
November ; as, if planted in the 
spring, they will not produce much. 




White Crease Back Beans. 



BEETS. 

Betrave (Fr.), Eunkelruebe (Ger.), Remolacha (Sp.). 

Extra Early or Bassano. Egyptian Bed Turnip. 

Simon's Early Red Turnip. \ Long Red Mangel Wurzel. 

Early Blood Turnip. I White French Sugar. 

Long Blood. , ' Silver or Swiss Chard. 

Half Long Blood. ' 

Culture, 

The ground for beets should be rich and well spaded or plowed. 
Sow in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart, cover the seed about 
one inch deep. When about a month old, thin them out to four or six 



For the Southern States. 2<J 



inches apart. In this latitude beets are sown from January till the end 
of April, and from the middle of July till the middle of November ; in 
fact, some market gardeners sow some every month in the year. In 
the summer and fall, it is well to soak the seeds over night and roll 
in plaster before sowing. 

Extra Early or Bassaiio, is the earliest variety, but not pop- 
ular on account of its color, which is almost white when boiled. Earli- 
ness is not of so much value here, where there are beets sown and 
brought to the market the w hole year round. In the North it is differ- 
ent, where the lirst crop of beets in the market in spring will bring a 
better price than the varieties which mature later. 





Simon's Early Ked Turnip Beet. Early Blood Turnip Beet. 

ISimoii's Early Red Turnip. This is earlier than the Blood 
Turnip, smooth skin and of light red color ; planted a good deal by 
the market gardeners about New Orleans. 

Early Blood Turnip. The most popular variety for market 
purposes as well as family use. It is of a dark red color, and very 
tender. This is the principal variety planted for shipping. My stock 
is raised for me from dark selected roots, and can not be excelled. 

Eong" Blood« Is not quite so tender as the foregoing variety ; it 
is not i:>lanted at all for the market, and very little for family use. In 
the North it is chiefly planted for winter use ; here we have Turnip 
Beets the whole winter from the garden ; therefore it has not the same 
value. 

Half Eong- Blood. A very dark red variety of a 'half long 
shape ; a good variety for family use. 

Eong- Red Mangel Wurzel. This is raised for stock; it 
grows to a large size. Here in the South where stock is not stabled 
during the winter, the raising of root crops is much neglected. Being 
very profitable for its food it ought to be more cultivated. 



30 



Eicharcl Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Eg^yptiaii Red Turiigp. 

This is a new variety sent oat by 
" Benary " some yearsago. It is 
very early, tender, deep red and 
of Turnip shape. Leaves of this 
variety are smallertlian of others. 
Tlie seeds are also much smaller. 
I recommend it and consider it a 
good acquisition. The seed of 
this variety is obtained by me 
from" the originator, and is the 
finest stock ofi'ered. 





White French Su^^ar Beet 



White French Siig^ar, is 

used the same as the foregoing; 
not much planted. 



Egyptiaa Eed Turnip Beet. 




Silver Beet or Swiss Chard- 



Silver Beet or Swiss Chardr This variety is cultivated for 
its large succulent leaves, which are used for the same purposes as 
Spinach. It is very popular in the New Orleans market. 



BORECOLE OR CURLED KALE. 

Chou-vert (Tr.), Grunee Kohl (Ger.), Breton (Sp. \ ' • ^ 
Dwarf Oerniau Oreeus. 

A vegetable highly esteemed in the Northern part of Europe, but 
very little cultivated in this country. It requires frost to make it 
good for the table. Treated the same as cabbage. 



For the Southern States. 



31 



BROCCOLI. 

Chou Brocoli (Fr.), Spargel-Kohl (Ger.), Bkoculi (Sp.). 
Purple Cape* 

Kesembles the Cauliflower, but not forming such compact heads, 
and not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. We raise such fine 
Cauliflower here that very little Broccoli is planted. 

The Purple Cape is the most desirable variety; cultivated the 
same as Half Early Cauliflower; further North than New Orleans, 
where Cauliflower does not succeed, the Broccoli may be substituted, 
beinsi- hardier. 




BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

Chou de Beuxelles (Fr.), Kosen ok Speos- 

SEN Kohl (Ger.), Breton de 

Bruselas (Sp.). 

A vegetable cultivated the same as 
the Cabbage, but very little known here. 
The small heads which appear along the 
upper part of the stalk between the 
leaves, make a fine dish when well pre- 
pared. 



Brussels Sprouts. 

Chou Pomme (Fr.), 

Early York. 
Early Large York. 
Early Sugar Loaf. 
Early Large Oxheart. 
Early Winningstadt . 
Jersey Wakefield. 
Early Flat Dutch. 
Early Drumhead. 
Large Flat Brunswick. 
Improved Early Summer. 



CABBAGE. 

Kopfkohl (Ger.), Repollo (Sp.). 

Improved Large Late Drumhead. - 
Frotscher's Superior Late Flat 

Dutch. 
Red Dutch (for Pickling). 
Green Globe Savoy. 
Early Dwarf Savoy. 
Drumhead Savoy. 
St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 
Excelsior. 



During the past " World's Exposition " I exhibited different vege- 
tables as they were in season. Many visitors will recollect the fine 
specimens of Cabbage, Beets, Celery, Cauliflower, Lettuce, Cucum- 
bers, etc., they saw there displayed. I received the Prize for '* Frot- 
scher's Flat Dutch Cahtoag-e" and •Early Blood Turnip Beets. 



32 Richard FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Sixteen heads of Cabbage, devoid of all outside leaves, weighed one 
hundred and seventy-three pounds. They were raised on Captain 
Marcy's place, one mile below Algiers.— I did not exhibit these for 
competition, but merely to show to our Northern visitors what fine 
vegetables we have here during the winter, when at their homes every 
thing is covered with snow and ice. The Committee of Awards on 
Vegetables gave me the Prize without any solicitation on my part, — 
they thinking it well merited. (See inside cover.) 



Culture, 

Cabbage requires a strong, good soil, and should be heavily man- 
ured. To raise large Cabbage without good soil and without working 
the plants well, is an impossibility. Cabbage is sown here almost in 
every month of the year, but the seed for a main crop should be sown 
from July to September. Some sow earlier, but July is time enough. 
For a succession, seed can be sown till November. Early varieties 
are sown during winter and early spring. Cabbage is a very impor- 
tant crop and one of the best paying for the market gardener. It re- 
quires more work and attention than most people are willing to give, 
to raise cabbage plant's during the months of July and August. I 
have found, by careful observation, that plants raised in August are 
the surest to head here. The most successful gardeners in raising- 
cabbage plants, sow the seeds thinly in seed-beds, and water several 
times during the day ; in fact, the seed bed never is allowed to get 
dry from the sowing of the seed till large enough to transplant. There 
is no danger in doing this of scalding the plants, as many would sup- 
pose ; but on the contrary, the plants thrive well, and so treated, will 
be less liable to be attacked by the cabbage-fly, as they are too often 
disturbed during the day. Tobacco stems chopped ap and scattered 
between the plants and in the walks between the beds, are a preventa- 
tive against the fly. 

Early York. This is an early variety, but very little grown 
here except for family use. As we have cabbage heading up almost 
the whole year, it has not the same value as in Northern climates, 
wdiere the first cabbage in spring brings a good price. 

Larg-e York. About two to three weeks later than the above, 
forming hard heads ; not grown for the market. Eecommendod for 
family use. 

Early 8ug:ar Eoaf. Another pointed variety, with spoon- 
shaped leaves ; sown in early spring for an early summer cabbage. 

Early Earg-e Oxiieart. An excellent variety, which is later 
than the Large York, and well adapted for sowing in fall or early 
spring. 

Early Winiiiiigstadf. This is a very fine solid-heading variety ; 
pointed and of good size, of the same season as the Oxheart. It is 
very good for family use. It does not suit the market, as no pointed 
cabbage can be sold to an^^ advantage in the New Orleans market. 



For the Southern States. 



33 




Early Large Oxheart. 




Early Winningstadt. 




Large Flat Brunswicli. 



Earlv Flat Dutch. 




Gryeii Glcjbe 8!i\'ov. 




Earlv Dwarf Sav(>v. 



3i 



Elcnard Frotschers Almanar- and Garden MawiaJ 




Ivotsche-i. 



La:c Flat Dnu 



Jersey "Wakefield. Tery popular in the Xorth. but little 
planted here. It is of medium size and heads up well. 

Early Flat Dutcli. An intermediate variety between the early 
pointed and late varieties. It is not, on an average, as heavy as the 
Oxheart or Winningstadt, but, if raised for the market, more salable 
on account of being flat. Yery good variety for family' use. 

Early Drumhead. A similar variety to the above; a little 
earlier, and not making as many leaves it can be planted close. A 
good early spring cabbage. 

Earge Flat Brtsuswick. This is a late German variety, intro- 
duced by me about nineteen years ago. It is an excellent variety, and 
when well headed up the shape of it is a true type of a Premium Flat 
Dutch Cabbage. It re-quires very rich ground, and should be sown 
early, as it is a little more susceptible of frost than the Superior Flat 
Dutch. It is well adapted for shipping, being very hard, and does not 
wilt so quick as others. At Frenier, along the Jackson Eailroad, this 
is the kind principally planted, and is preferred over all other varit?- 
ties. The people living there plant nothing else except cabbage, 
and have tried nearly all highly recommended varieties, and this 
is their choice. At that place the seeds are sown in October and Novem- 
ber; the bulk of the cabbage raised there is shipped Xorth, in April 
and AEav. and is the finest which comes to the Chicaeo mark-i^t. 



For the Southern Statef^. 



35 




Early Drnmbeacl Cabbage. 



Improved Early Summer 



loiproved Eatly Smmner. This cabbage is of recent intro- 
duction. It is not quite so large as tlie Brunswiclc, but earlier ; for 
fall it can be sown in xVugust ; for spring, in November and as late as 
Januar3\ It heads up very uniform and does not produce many out- 
side leaves. It is ht^rdierthan the Brunswick, and stands the cold and 
heat better. The seed I offer is of the best strain cultivated, and can' 
be planted closer together than the late varieties, say about SOOO to 
the acre. I can recommend it very highly. 

Improved Itargc Late Drtiiiihead« Fine large variety; 
should be sown early in the fall for winter, or during December and 
January for late spring use ; it will stand more cold weather than the 
Brunswick. - 

Superior JLate Flat Dutch. This is the most popular variety 
for v/inter cabbage, and cultivated by almost every gardener who 
plants for the New Orleans market. My stock is of superior quality, 
and I venture to say that seventy-five per cent, of all cabbage sold in 
the New Orleans market are of seeds which have been obtained from 
my store. During winter and spring, specimens, which are brought 
as samples to my establishment, weighing from fifteen to twenty-five 
pounds, can be frequently seen. In regard to the time of planting see 
remarks under head of cabbage, in the directions for planting for July. 
I have tried seed of the Flat Dutch from different growlers, but have 
found none yet to equal the stock I have been selling for years, and 
which is raised for me by contract. 

Red Dutcli. Mostly used for pickling or salads. Very little 
cultivated. 

Green Olobe Savoy. Medium sized heads, not very hard, but 
all the leaves can be used. This and the following varieties are of fine 
flavor, and preferred by many over the other varieties. 

Early ©warf Savoy. Heads rather small, but solid; leaves 
very curled and succulent, of a dark green color. Very fine for family 
garden. 

DruBuhead Savoy. Leaves are wrinkled, but not quite so 
much as the two foregoing kinds. It groAvs to a good size with large 
roundish head:-. 



36 Hichard Frotschers Almano.':- and Garden JIanual 



St. Denis or Chou Bouueuil. This was at one time one of 
the most popular varieties grown for this market : but since a few 
years it has not done as well as formerly, and is therefore planted very 
little now. It wants good ground and high cultivation. It does better 
for spring than for fall. Should be sown in November. 

Excelsior. There are several varieties called by this name. 
AVhat I offer is a second early variety : light green in color, but few out- 
side leaves and a large roundish head. It is not as hardy as the Supe- 
rior Flat Dutch, and did excellently when planted for the spring. 
Seed sown last season as late as January produced fine large heads. 
It stands the heat better than the Brunswick. This variety, the 
Brunswick and Early Summer are the best to plant for shipping in 
spring. 

CAULIFLOWER. 
Choufleur iFr. I. Blumenkohl i.Ger.; Colifloe (Sp.j. 

Extra Early Paris. | Early Italian Giaxt. 

Half Early Paris. | Late Italian Giant. 

Early Erfurt. j Imperial (newL 

Le X ormands (short stemmed'i. I Large Algiers. 

This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeeds well in the 
neighborhood of Xew Orleans. Large quantities are raised on the sea 
coast in the neighborhood of Barataria Bay. The two Italian varieties 
are of excellent quality, growing to a large size, and are considered 
hardier than the German and French varieties. I have had specimens 
brought to the store, raised from seed obtained from me, weighing six- 
teen pounds. The ground for planting Cauliflower should be very 
rich. They thrive best in rich sandy soil, and require plenty of mois- 
ture during the formation of the head. The Italian varieties should 
be sown from April till July ; the latter month and June is the best 
time to sow the Early Giant. During August, September and October, 
the Le Xormands, Half Early Paris and Erfurt can be sown. The 
Half Early Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are just as 
good. For spring crop the Italian kinds do not answer, but the early 
French and German varieties can be sown at the end of December 
and during January-, in a bed protected from frost, and may be trans- 
planted during Februaiw and as late as March into the open ground. 
If we have a favorable season, and not too dry, they will be very fine : 
but if the heat sets in soon the flowers will not* obtain the same size 
as those obtained from seeds sown in fall, and which head during 
December and January. 

Extra Early Paris, the earliest variety, heads small : very ten- 
der. 

" Half Early Paris. The most popular in the Xew Orleans mar- 
ket. Heads of good ?ize. white and compact. 

Early Erfurt. This variety is of more dwarfish growth than 
the two f r,rmer. Heads white and of good size. Heads with certainty. 

Ee ^Tor mauds is a French variety, and largely cultivated here. 
It stands more dry weather than the other varieties, and has large 
and pure white heads. Not so v>opular as the Half Early Paris in this 
market, but there is no good reason why it should not be, as it is an ex- 
cellent variety in every respect ; stands the heat better than any other. 



For the SoatJiern States. 




Le Normands, short-stemmed Cauliflower. 




Large Algiers 



L,arg-c Alg-iers. A French variety of the same season as the Le. 
Normands, but a surer cropper. It is one of the best kinds, and will 
take the place of all other second early varieties when better known. 

-Early Italian Oiaiit. Very large fine sort, not quite so late as 
the Late Italian, and almost as large. The heads are quite large, white 
and compact, and of delicious flavor. I recommend it to all who have 
not tried it. When sown at the proper season it will head with cer- 
tainty, and will not fail to give satisfaction. 

Late Italian Oiant. This is the largest of all the Cauliflowers. 
It is grown to a considerable extent in the neighborhood of New Or- 
leans. It is very large and compact ; should not be sown later than 
June, as it takes from seven to nine months before it heads. 



3S Fucliartl Frotr^cher'^ Aima/mr artd Garden Manual 




% 








r in\ It iivii L : . iTloMf 1. 

luiperial. (2sew.) A variety from France, very similar to the 
Le Xormand?. perhaps a little earlier; very good. I recommend it 
highly. 

CARROT. 

Carotte i.Fr. !. Moehre or Gelee Euebe (Ger.). Zaxahopja (Sp.). 



Early Scarlet Horn. 
Half Lon'g Scarlet Frexch. 
Improved Long Orange. 
Long Eed. vtithoet core. 



St. Talerie. 
• Hale Long Luc. 

Danvees Intermediate. 



Eecpaires a sandy loam, well manured, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown in drills ten to twelve inches apart, so the plants can 
be worked after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow them 
broad-cast, and often the roots are small from being crowded too 
much together. 

Early Scarlet Horn. A short stump-rooted variety, of mediam 
size, very early and of fine rlavor. Xot otiltivated for the market. 

Half Long FreiscSi Scarlet. This is the most popular variety, 
and extensively grown for the market as well as for family use. It is 
a little later than the Early Horn, but much larger; bright scarlet in 
color, and of fine flavor. 

Half LiOiii^ L.11C. This is a new variet}* from France, It is as 
early as any previously mentioned, but stump-rocted and larger. It 
is very smooth and of a fine color. 

Improved Long Orange, This is an old variety, roots long 
and of deep orange color. It is not much cultivated in this section, 
and the flavor is not so fine as that of the two preceding kinds. Valu- 
able for field culture. 



For the SouiJiern States. 




Early Scarlet Horn Carrot. Half Long Luc Carrot. 



Half Long Frencli 
Scarlet Carrot. 




Long Eed Carrut, without core. St. Va^ene Carrot. Lanverd' Intermediate, 



40 



BicJuird F/'otscher's Almanac and Oardeit Manual 



Long' Red, without core. A new variety from France, which is 
of cylindrical shape, very smooth, bright scarlet color, and of fine fla- 
vor ; has no heart or core. It is not quite so early as the Half Long, 
but more productive. Consider it a flrst-class variety for the table, 
and one that will come into general cultivation wdien better known. 

St. Valerie. A new variety from France, bright red in color ; a 
little larger and longer than the Half Long French, and stronger in 
the leaves. This is one of the finest carrots, and will take the place 
of the Half Long in the course of time. It is very smooth. 

Danvers. An intermediate American variety of recent introduc- 
tion. It is of a bright orange color; very smooth, symmetrically 
formed ; somewhat stump-rootod like the Half Long Luc. It will pro- 
duce more in w^eight to the acre than any other Half Long variety. 



CELERY. 

Celeri (Fr.), Sellerie (Ger.), Apio (Sp.). 



Large White Solid. 
Sandringham's Dwarf White. 
Turnip-Eooted. 



Dwarf Large PiIBBep. 
Cutting. 



(New\ ) 




Sow in May and June for early 
transplanting, and in August 
and September for a later crop. 
Sow thinly and shade during the 
hot months. When the plants 
are six inches high, transplant 
into trenches about four inches 
deep, nine wide, and two and a 
half feet apart, made very rich 
by digging in rotten manure. 
Plants should be from 6 to 8 
inches apart. When planted out 
during the hot months, the 
trenches require to be shaded, 
which is generally done by 
spreading cotton cloth over 
them ; lantanais will answ^er the 
same purpose. Celery requires 
plenty of moisture, and watering 
with soapsuds, or liquid manure, 
will benefit the plants a great 
deal. When tall enough it 
should be earthed up to blanch 
to make it fit for the table. 

Lai'^e H^liite Solid is the 
variety mostly growm . Is wdiite, 
solid and crisp. 

Sandriiigliaiii'^ Dwarf 
Wiiite. This is a new variety 
of excellent quality, somewhat 



Lurse White Solid Celerv. 



For the Southern State.i. 



41 




Culeiiac oi^ Turnip-Eooted Celery. 



taller than the -Incomparable 
Dwarf. It has berome very pop- 
ular with the market gardeners. 

Celeriac oi' Tiiriiip-rooted 
Celery, is very popular in some 
parts of Europe, but hardly cul- 
tivated here. It should be sown 
in the fall of the year, and trans- 
planted six inches apart, in row^s 
one foot apart. When the roots 
have obtained a good size, they 
are boiled, scraped off, sliced and 
dressed with vinegar, etc., as a 
salad. 

Dwarf, JLarge Ribbed. 

This kind was brought here sev- 
eral years ago from France. It 
is short, but very thick-ribbed, 
solid and of fine flavor. One of 
the very best for here. 

Celery for 8oup. This is 
sown in the spring of the year, 
broad-cast, to be used for season- 
ing, the same as Parsley. 




Dwarf, Large Ribbed. (New.) 



•i'i Ricliard Fi'otscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 

CHERVIL. 

CERrEuiL (Fr.), Keebelkraut (Ger.). 

All aromatic plant used a good deal for seasoning, especially in 
oyster soup, and is often cut between Lettuc-e when seryed as a salad. 
In the North this vegetable is very little known, but in this section 
there is hardly' a garden where it is not found. Sow broad-cast during 
fall for winter and spring, and in January and February for summer 
use, 

COLLARDS, 

A kind of cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are used 
the same as other cabbage. Not so popular as in former years, and 
very little planted in this vicinity. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache. Doucet (Fr.,), Acxer Salat (Ger.j, Valeriaxa (Sp.). 
Broad-leaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. It is 
used as a salad during the winter and early spring months. Should 
be sown broad-cast during fall and winter, or in drills nine inches 
apart. 

CORN— Indian 

Mais (Fr.l, Welschkorn (Ger.), Maiz (Sp.). 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar. Larg'e White Flint. 

Adah's Extra Early. Blunt's Prolific Field. 

Early Sugar or Sweet. Improved Leaming. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. Golden Beauty. 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed. Champion White Pearl. 
Early Yellow Canada. 

Plant in hills about three feet apart, drop four to five seeds and 
thin out to two or thr-ee. Where the ground, is strong the Adam's 
Extra Early and Crosby's Sugar can be planted in hills two and a half 
feet apart, as these two varieties are more dwarfish than the other 
varieties. Plant for a succession from February till June. 

Extra Early or Crosby's Dwarf §ug^ar. This is a very 
early variety and of excellent quality. Ears small, but very tender. 
It is not so extensively planted as it deserves to be. 

Adain-s Extra Early, the most popular variety with market 
gardeners for first planting. It has no fine table qualities, but as it 
grows to a good size, and is matured in about forty days from time of 
planting, it meets with ready sale in the market, and for these reasons 
gardeners prefer it. 

Early §ug-ar or New EiiglaBid> A long eight-rowed variety, 
which succeeds the Extra Early kinds. Desirable variety. 

Stoi:\-el's Evergreen Siig-ar. This is the best of all Sugar 
Corn. It is not an early Corn, but the ears are of large size, and are 
well filled. It remains green longer than any other variety, and is 
quite productive. The cultivation of this excellent cereal, as well as 
all other Sugar Corn, is much neglected, yet why people will plant 
common field-corn for table use, considering size instead of quality, I 
cannot understand. 



For ike Soutlu-'rn Statei 



as 



liii 




Extra Early Sugar Corn. Early Sugar or New England Corn. Evergreen Sugar Corn. 

Golden Dent Gourd §eed. A field variety which is very pro- 
ductive at the North. It makes a very fine Corn South, but has to be 
planted here several years in succession before it attains perfection, 
as during the first year the ears are not well covered by the husk, as 
it is the case with all Northern varieties. When selected and planted 
here for a few years, it becomes acclimated and makes an excellent 
Corn with large, fine ears, grain deep and cob of medium size. 

Early Yellow Canada. A long, eight-rowed variety. It is 
very early, and is planted in both field and garden. 

L.arg-e Wliite Flint. A very popular variety with gardeners 
and amateurs. It is planted here for table use principally, but like 
the Golden Dent makes an excellent variety for field culture after it 
has been planted here for tv»'o or three years. 

Blunt's Proline Field Corn. This is a very excellent variety, 
either for the field or for the table. It is very prolific, producing from 
four to six ears of corn. They are of medium size, but well filled and 
heavy. It is second early. This variety has done better than any 
other, and being of Southern origin it seems to be better adapted to 
our climate. I recommend it as an early yielding Corn. 

Improved Learning-. An extra early variety, sold by me for the 
first time two years ago. It is not hard and flinty: but sweet and nu- 
tritious, making excellent feed and fine meal. The ears are large and 
handsome, v;ith deep large grains, deep orange color and small red 
cob. It is very productive. The shucks cover the ear better than any 



li 



PiicJtard Frot^rJier's Ahnaratr and Garden Manual 




ImproTecT Learning. 

Xorthern or Western variety I have ever tried. It is adapted to a 
variety of soils, and produces vrell on heavy and light soil: it has 
shown itself as very reliable. 

Oolden Beauty. This variety is the handsomest of all yellow 
corn : the ears are of a perfect shape, long, and filled out to the extreme 
end of the cob. The grains are not of a flinty type, neither are they 
so soft as to be greatly shriveled as is the Golden Dent. Golden 
Beauty matures early, ripening in eighty davs from planting, and sur- 
passes all in size and beauty of grain. 

Chauipioii \%'liite Pearl. This is a very handsome white corn. 
The grain is pure white, exceedingly heavy and long, two of which 
will span the cob, which is small. Being medium in size of stalk it 
can be planted much thicker than a large Corn and at the same time 
bear a full sized ear. The originator has established in Champion 
White Pearl Corn a short, thick stalk, with the ear growing low upon 
it. which is an advantage in stormv weather. 



For the Southern States. 



45 




.. \- J-- ..XS'i^ 



Golden Beautv Corn. 



46 



BicJiard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Champion White Pearl Corn. 

CRESS. 

Cressox (Fr.), Keesse, (Ger.), Berro (Sp.)- 

Used for salad during winter and spring. Sow broad -cast or in 
drills six inches apart. 

Curled or Pejiper Orass. Not much used in this section. 

Broad-Jeaved. This variety is extensively cultivated for the 
market. It is sown from early fall to late spring. The leaves resem- 
ble Water Cress ; a va^riety which does not well succeed here. Is con- 
sidered a very wholesome dish. 

CUCUMBER. 

CoxcoMBRE iFr.}, GuBEE (Ger.), Pepixo (Sp.). 



Improved Early White Spixe. 
Early Frame. 
Long Green Turkey. 



Early Cluster. 

Long Green White Spine. 

Gherkin or Burr (for pickling). 



Cucumbers need a rich soil. Plant in hills from three to four feet 
apart ; the hills should be made rich with well decomposed manure, 
and eight to ten seeds should be planted in each hill, and covered 
about one-half inch deep ; when well up thin out to four plants in the 
hill. Hoe between the hills till the vines meet. When the spring, is 
dry the plants have to be watered, else they do not keep in bearing 
long. They can be planted from March till July. A great many cu- 
cumbers are planted here in February, or even sooner, and are pro- 
tected by small boxes with a pane of glass on top. These boxes are 
removed daring the day, and put back in the evening. When days are 
cloudy and cold, the plants are kept covered. 



For the Southern States. 




Improved Early White Spine. 



Improved Early l¥liite Spine. 

This is the most popular variety. It is of 
'medium size, light green, covered with 
white Spines, and turns white when ripe. 
The best variety for shipping, Of late 
years it is used by most gardeners for forc- 
ing as well as out-door culture. It is very productive. 

Early Frame. Another early variety, but 
not so popular as the foregoing kind. It is deep 
green in color, but turns yellow very quickly : 
therefore gardeners do not plant it much. 

Eoiig: Oreeii Turkey. A long variety 
attaining a length of from fifteen to eighteen 
inches when well grown. Very fine and produc- 
tive. 

Early Cluster. Early, short and prickly; 
it bears in clusters. 





Early Cluster. 



West India Gherkin. 




Long Green White Spine Cucumber- 

Itong Green li'rhite Spine or New Orleans Market. This 
is a variety selected from an imported forcing cucumber intro- 
duced by me. It is good for forcing or open ground ; very productive, 
keeps its green color, and has few vines. This variety can not be ex- 
celled for shipping, as it produces very perfect cucumbers and but fevr 



48 



Richard FroL^cher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



culls ; the largest growers of cucumbers for shipping about here 
plant none but this variety. It is quite different from the Long- 
White Spine offered by some. 

West India Olierkiii. This is an oval variety, small in size. 
It is used for pickling when young and tender. When grown to its 
full size it can be stewed v>ith meat. In fact, this is the only use made 
of it about New Orleans. 



EGG-PLANT. 

Aubergine (Fr.), Eierpflanze (Ger.), Berengena (Sp.). 

The seeds should be sown in hot-beds in the early part of January. 
When a couple of inches high they should be transplanted into another 
frame, so that the plants may become strong and robust. When warm 
enough, generally during March, the plants can be placed in the open 
ground, about two and a half feet apart.- This- vegetable is very 
popular in the South, and extensively cultivated. 




Large Purple Egg-P]ant. 

L<arg^e Purple or New Orleans Market. This is the only 
kind grown here ; it is large, oval in shape and of a dark purple color 
and very productive. Southern grown seed of this, as of a good many 
other tropical or sub-tr6pical vegetables, is preferable to Northern 
seed, as it will germinate more readily, and the plant will last longer 
during the hot season. 



ENDIVE. 

Chicoeee (Fr.), Endivien (Ger.), Endibia (Sp.). 

A salad plant which is very popular and much cultivated for the 
market, principally for summer use. It can be sown in drills a foot 
ai^art, and, when the plants are well up, thinned out till about eight 
inches apart. Or it can be sown broad-cast thinly and transplanted 
the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are large enough, say about 



Fo7^ the Southern Statea 



4'J 



eight inches long, tie tiiem up for blanching, to make them fit for the 
table. This can only bo done in dry weather, otherwise the leaves are 
apt to rot. For summer use do not sow before the end of March, as, 
if sown sooner, the plants will run into seed very early. Sow for a 
succeSvSion during the 
spring and s u m m e r 
months. For winter use 
sow in September and 
October. 

Oreen €ur!ed. Is 
the most desirable kind, 
as it stands more heat than 
the following sort, and the 
favorite market variety. 

Extra Fine Curled. 
Does not grow <iuite so 
large as the foregoing, and is more apt to decay when there is a wet 
summer. Better adapted for winter. 

Broad-leaved or Escarolle. Makes a fine salad when well 
grown and blanched, especially for summer. 




Green Curled Endive. 



KOHL-RABl, OR TURNIP- ROOTED CABBAGE. 

Chou Navet (Fr.), Kohl-Kabi (Ger.), Col de Nabo (Sp.). 

This vegetable is very popular with the European pojDulation of 
this city, and largely cultivated here. It is used for soups, or pre- 
pared in the same manner as 
Cauliflower. For late fall and 
winter use it should be sown 
from the end of July till the 
middle of October; for spring- 
use, during January and Febru- 
ary. When the young plants 
are one month old transplant 
them in rows one foot apart, and 
about the same distance in the 
rows. They also grow finely if 
sown broad-cast and thinned out 
when young, so that the plants 
are not too crowded ; or, they 
may be sown in drills, and 
cultivated the same as Kuta 
Bagas. 

Early White Vieiiua. 
The finest variety of all, and the 
only kind I keep. It is early, 
forms a smooth bulb, and has 
few small leaves. The so-called 
large White or Green is not de- 

Earlv White Vienna Kohl-rabi sirable. 




50 



Blchard Frotscher's AlmancbC and Garden Manual 




Larg 



LEEK. 

PoiREAU (Ft.), Lauch (Ger.), PuEEO(Sp.). 

A species of Onion, highly esteemed for flavoring 
soups. Should be sown broad-cast and transplanted, 
when about six to eight inches high, into rows a foot 
apart, and six inches apart in the rows. Should be 
planted at least four inches deep. They require to 
be well cultivated in order to secure large roots. 
Sow in October for winter and -spring use, and in 
•January and February, for summer. 

JLarge I^oiidon Flag^. Is the most desirable 
kind, and that most generally grown. 

£.arg-e Careiitaii. This is a new French vari- 
ety which grovv's to a very large size. 



LETTUCE. 

Laitue (Fr.), Laitich (Ger.), Lechuga (Sp.) 



Early Cabbage or White Butter- 
head. 
Impro^^ed Royal Cabbage. 
Brown Dutch Cabbage. 



Drumhead Cabbage. 

White Paris Coss. 

Perpignan. 

Improved Large Passion. 



Lettuce is sown here during the whole year by the market gar- 
dener. Of course, it takes a good deal of labor to produce this vege- 
table during our hot summer months. For directions how to sprout 
the seed during that time, see "Work for June." The richer and 
better the ground the larger the head will be. No liner Lettuce is 
grown anywhere else than in New Orleans during fall and spring. The 
seed should be sown broad-cast, and, when large enough, planted out 
in rows a foot apart, and from eight to ten inches apart in the rows. 
Some kinds grow larger than others ; for instance, Butterhead will not 
require as much space as Drumhead or Perpignan. 




White Paris Cosh Lettuce 



Perpignan Lettuce. 



For the Southern Stateti. 



51 



fiarly Cabbage or Wbite Butter. 

An early variety forming a solid head, but 
not quite so large as some others. It is the 
best kind for family use, to sow during fall 
and early spring, as it is very early and of 
good flavor. 




Early Cabbage or White Butter 



Improved Royal Cabbage. This is the most popular variety 
in this State. Heads light green, of large size, and about two weeks 
later than the White Butter. It is very tender and crisp ; can be sown 
later in the spring than the foregoing kind, and does not run into 
seed so quickly. 

Brown Hutcli Cabbage. A very hardy kind, forms a solid 
head ; not so popular as many other kinds ; good for winter. 

Driimlieacl Cabbage. An 

excellent spring variety forming 
large heads, the outer leaves 
curled. 

\Tliiie Paris Coss. This is 
very popular with the New Orleans 
market gardeners, as it is the 
favorite with the French popula- 
tion. It grows to perfection and 
forms large, tine heads, particu- 
larly in the spring of the year. 




Drninhead Cabbage Lettuce. 



Perpigiiau, A fine German variety which forms large light 
green heads, and which stands the heat better than the Koyal. It is 
much cultivated for the market, as it thrives well when sown during 
the latter end of spring. 

Improved I^arge Passion. This is a large Cabbage Lettuce 
introduced by me from California ; it attains a large size, grows slowly, 
but heads very hard. It does better here during late autumn and 
winter than in summer, as it cannot stand the heat. If sown late in 
the fall and transplanted during winter, it grows to very large heads, 
hard and firm. It is the kind shipped from here in the spring. 



MELON. — Musk or Canteloupe. 
Melon (Fr.), Melone (Ger.), Melon (Sp.). 



Netted Nutbieg. 
Netted Citron. 
Pine xIpple. 



Early White Japan. 
Persian or Cassaba. 
New Orleans Market. 



Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground is not rich 
enough a couple of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed into 
each hill, which ought to be from five to six feet apart ; drop ten or 
twelve seeds, and when the plants have two or three rough leaves, 
thin out to three or four plants. Cantcloupes are cultivated very ex- 



52 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



tensively in the neighborhood of New Orleans, and the quality is very 
fine ; far superior to those raised in the North. Some gardeners 
plant during February and cover with boxes, the same as described 
for t'ucumbers. When Melons are ripening, too much rain will im- 
pair the flavor of the fruit. 

JVetled N€itiBie§: Melon. Small oval melon, roughly netted, 
early, and of fine flavor. 

IVetted Citron Canfelonpe. This variety is larger than the 
foregoing kind ; it is more rounded in shape, of medium size aad roughly 
netted. 

Pine Apple Canteiowpe. A medium sized early variety, oval 
in shape, and of very fine flavor. 

Early IVIiite Japan Canteloupe. An early kind, of creamish 
white color, very sweet, and of medium size. 

Persian or Cas§al>a. A large variety, of oval shape and delicate 
flavor. The rind of this kind is very thin, which is a disadvantage in 
handling, and prevents it from being planted for the market. Very 
fine for familv use. 





Note.— The above cut represents the New Orleans Melon; it has been taken from a 
common specimen grown by one of my customers, who raises the seed of-.this variety 
for me. 

New Orleans Market. A large species of the citron kind. It 
is extensively grown for this market ; large in size, very roughly netted 
and of luscious flavor ; different altogether from the Northern Netted 
Citron, which is earlier, but not so fine in flavor, and not half the size 
of the variety grown here. The New Orleans Market cannot be ex- 



For tJie SoKlheni Slate 



celled by any other variety in the world. In a favorable season it is a 
perfect gem. I have tried it alongside of varieties praised at the 
North, such as are brouglit out every year,— but none of them could 
compare with the New^ Orleans Market. As for some years past the 
seeds were scarce I had some grown North, but they lost their fine 
qualities, size and flavor. It requires a Southern sun to bring the seed 
to i^erfection. Small varieties of melons will improve in size if culti- 
vated here for a number of years, and if care is taken that no Cucum- 
bers, Squashes, Gourds or Pumpkin are cultivated in the vicinity. If 
the best and earliest specimens are selected for seed, in three or four 
years the fruit will be large and line. 

MELON— Water. 

Melon d'Eau (Fr.), Wasseemelone (Ger.), Sandia (Sp.). 



Mountain Sweet. 
Mountain Sprout. 
Improved Gipsey. 
Ice-Cream (White seeded). 
Orange Water. 



Rattle Snake, 
Cuban Queen. 
Mammoth Iron Glad. 
Pride of Georgia. 



Water Melon will grow and produce in places where Canteloupe 
will not do well. The soil for this plant should be light and sandy. 
Plant in hills about eight feet apart, eight to twelve seeds in a hill ; 
when the plants are w^ell up thin out to three. The plants should be 
hoed often, and the ground between the hills kept clean till the vines 
touch. 




Mountain Sweet \\ atcv Melou^ 




Mountain Sprout Meloi 



51 Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Improved Gipsey Melon. 

Mountain S"weet \%''ater. This was once a very popular 
variety ; it is of oblong shape, flesh bright scarlet and of good flavor. It 
is very productive. 

Mountain Sprout Water. This is similar in shape to the fore- 
going variety, but rather later. It is light green with irregular stripes 
of dark green. Flesh bright scarlet. 

Improved Oipsey. This is a lately introduced variety which 
has become the favorite of the market gardeners. It is very large, ob- 
long, and of a dark green color, striped and mottled with light green. 
Flesh scarlet and of delicious flavor. This is without any exception 
the best market variety. 

Ice-Cream. (White Seeded.) A medium sized variety of excel- 
lent quality. It is early and very productive. Being thin in the rind 
it is not so well adapted for the market as the other kinds ; notwith- 
standing this, it is grown exclusively by some for that purpose, on ac- 
count of its earliness. It has come into general cultivation more and 
more every year, as it is very sweet, and sells readily in the market. 

Orang^e \f^ater. Quite a distinct variety from the others. The 
rind can be peeled off the same as the skin of an orange. It is of me- 
dium size, fair quality. Yery little cultivated. 

Rattle Snake. An old Southern variety which has come into 
notice since a few years ; it is of large size, the green not quite so dark 
as the Gipsey, but the stripes larger ; fine market variety. The past 
season, when other varieties failed, it stood the wet weather well, and 
sold more readily than others, not having been injured in looks. It 
stands transportation better than any other ; has become the stand- 
ard market variety, and taken the place of the Mountain Sweet and 
Mountain Sprout, which were planted in former years. The seed I 
offer of this variety is grown for me by one of the best growers in 
Georgia. It is of the purest strain that can be found. 

Cuban Queen. A striped variety; highly recommended by 
Northern seedsmen : said to reach from fifty to seventy pounds. 
Sweet and of delicate flavor ; it does not grow as large here as said it 
does North. 

Mammoth Iron Clad. A new variety ; highly recommended 
North, but does not come up to expectation when planted here. 



For ilie Southern State><. 



Pride of Oeorg^aa. A new Melon from Georgici, of excellent 
quality; attains a large size when well cultivated. A very good vari- 
ety for family use. 




Pride of Georgia Melon. 




Mammoth Iron Clad Meloi 



56 



Fi'tcharcl FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



MUSTARD. 

MouTAEDE (Tr.), Sexf (Ger.), Mostaza (Sp.). 
White oe Yellow Seeded. | Laege-Leaved. 
This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern States, and is 
sown broad-cast during fall, winter and spring. It may be used the 
same as spinach, or boiled with meat as greens. The White or Yellow 
Seeded is very little cultivated, and is used chiefly for medical pur- 
poses, or pickling. The Large-leayed or Curled has black seed, a dis- 
tinct kind from the Northern or European rariety. The seed is raised 
in Louisiana. It makes very large leaves ; cultivated more and more 
everv vear. 



NASTURTIUM. 

CAPrciXE (Tr. 1, Ixdia^'ische Keesse (^Ger.), 
Tall, j Dwaef. 
Not cultivated here, except for ornament. 



Capuchixa (Sp.). 



OKRA. 

Geeex Tall Geowixg. i Dwaef White. 
This is a highly esteemed vegetable in the South, and no garden, 
whether small or large, is without it. It is used in making "Gumbo," 
a dish the Creoles of Louisiana know how to prepare better than any 
other nationality. It is also boiled in salt and water, and served with 
vinegar as a salad, and is considered a very wholesome dish. Should 
not be planted before the ground is warm in spring, as the seeds are 
apt to rot. Sow in drills, which ought to be two to three feet apart, 
and when up, thin out, and leave one or two plants every tAvelve or 
fifteen inches. 




Tall Growln.s: Okra. 



For the Southern States. 



57 



Tall Gi-o\i4iig:. This is the variety most cultivated here. The 
pods are long, roaiid towards the end, and keep tender longer than 
the square podded kind. 

Dwarf White. This is a very early and prolific variety, and re- 
mains tender longer than any other. It will come into general cul- 
tivation when better known . The stock of seed I offer has been selected 
for years, and is very pure. 

ONION. 

Ognon (Fr.), ZwiEBEL (Ger.), Cebolla (Sp,). 
Creole. | New Queen. 
The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is grown 
to a large extent in Louisiana. Thousands of barrels are shipped in 
spring from here to the Western and Northern States. There is one 
peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and that is, they can only 
be raised from Southern, or so-called Creole seed. No seed from 
North, West, or any part of Europe, will produce a merchantable 
Onion in the South. When the crop of Creole seed is a failure, and 
they are scarce, they will bring a good price, and have been sold as 
high as ten dollars a pound, when at the same time Northern seed 
could be had for one-fourth of that price. Northern raised seed can 
be sown to be used green, but as we have Shallots here which grow 
during the whole autumn and winter, and multiply very*rapidly, the 
sowing of seed for green Onions is not profitable. Seed should be 
sowai from the middle of September to the end of October; if sown 
sooner too many will throw up seed stalks. They are generally sown 
broad-cast, and when the size of a goose quill transplanted into rows 
one to two feet apart, and about five inches in the rows. Onions are 
different, in regard to rotation, from other vegetables ; they do best if 
raised on the same ground for a succession of years. The price of 
Onions has been good, and it is expected to be equally as good next 
spring. 




Louisiana or Creole Oinon. 



58 • Bicltard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



L.oui§iaiia or Creole Onion. This is generally of a light red 
color, darker than the Strassburg, and lighter in color than the Weth- 
ersfield. The seed I have been selling, of this kind, for a number of 
3'ears, has been raised on Bayou Lafourche, and has never failed to 
make fine large Onions. 

The crop of Creole Onion seed having failed three years ago, I sold 
a good deal of Italian seed, and had ample opportunity to see the re- 
sults. The Giant Eocca I have discarded ; it takes too long to bulb 
and is very spongy. The Bermuda and Bed Tripoli have done fair, 
but the Onions do not mature as early as the Creole, and do not keep 
so well, although attaining a very large size, more so the Bermuda. 
They are of mild flavor, and well adapted to be used up in spring ; but 
I would not recommend them to be raised for shipping, except the 
White Queen. 

NEW ITALIAN ONIONS. 

Mew Queen. This is a medium sized, white variety from Italy, 
very early and flat ; can be sown as late as February, and good sized 
bulbs will yet be obtained. It is of mild flavor and very fine when 
boiled and dressed for the table. It can not be too highly recom- 
mended. 

Oiant Red Bermuda. Globular in shape, of reddish color, 
darker than^the Eocca, otherwise similar. 

SHALLOTS. 

ECHALLOTTEfFr.), SCHALOTTEN (Ger.). 

A small sized Onion which grows in clumps. It is generally grown 
in the South, and used in its green state for soups, stews, etc. There 
are two varieties, the Eed and White ; the latter variety is the most 
popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs are divided and set out in 
rows a foot apart, and four to six inches in the rows. They grow and 
multiply very fast, andean be divided during winter, and set out again. 
Late in spring, when the tops become dry, they have to be taken up, 
thoroughly dried, and stored in a dry, airy place. 

PARSLEY. 

Persil (Fr.), Peteesilie (Ger.i, Per.jil (Sp.). 

Plain Leaved. i Improved Garnishing. 

Double Curled. . j 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from August to October, and 
daring spring, from the end of January to tlie end of April. It is 
generally sown broad-cast. 

Plain l,eaved. This is the kind raided for the New Orleans 
market. 

I>oubjle Curled. The leaves of this variety are curled. It has 
the same flavor as the other kind, but is Aot so popular. 

Improved Crarnisliing-. This is the best kind to ornament a 
dish ; it has the same flavor as the other kinds. 



For the Southern State f^. 



PARSNIP. 

Panais (Fr.), Pastinake (Ger.j, Pahtinaca (Sp.). 
Hollow Crovv'-n, or Sugar. 

Should be sown in deep, mellow soil, deeply spaded, as the roots 
are long, in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart ; when the plants are 
three inches high thin out to three laches apart in the row. Sow from 
September to November for winter, and January to March for spring 
and summer crops. 

The Hollow Crown, or Siig'ar, is the kind generally culti- 
vated ; it possesses all the good qualities for which other varieties are 
recommended. 

PEAS. 

Pois (Fr.), Erbse (Ger.), Guisante (Sp.). 
EAKLIEST. 



Extra Early, or First and Best, 

2-|- feet. 
Early Washington, 3 feet. 



Early Tom Thumb, 1 foot. 
Laxton's Alpha, 3 feet. 
American Wonder, (new,) 1^ feet. 



SECOND CKOP. 



Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod, li feet. 
Champion of England, 5 feet. 
McLean's Advancer, 3 feet. 



McLean's Little Gem, Ih feet. 
Laxton's Prolific Long Pod, 
Eugenie, 3 feet. 



3 ft. 



GENERAL CROP. 



Dv/ARF Blue Imperial, 3 feet. 
Royal Dwarf Marrow, 3 feet. 
Black Eyed Marrowfat, 4 feet. 



Large White Marrowfat, 4 feet. 
Dwarf Sugar, 2| feet. 
Tall Sugar, 6 feet. 



Peas are a fine vegetable, and therefore are very generally culti- 
vated. It is best to plant in ground manured the previous year, else 
they will make more vines than peas. As a general thing the dwarf 
kinds require richer ground than the tall growing varieties. Marrow- 
fat Peas planted in rich ground will not bear well, but they produce 
finely in sandy, light soil. 

The Extra Early, Tom Tliumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not produce 
a large crop without being in rich ground. Peas have to be planted 
in drills two inches deep and from two to three feet apart, according 
to the height they may grow. Tom Thumb can be planted one foot 
apart, whereas White Marrowfat or Champion of England require 
three feet. The Extra Early, Alpha and Tom Thumb can be planted 
during August and September for fall. During November and Decem- 
ber we plant the Marrowfats ; January and February, as late as March, 
all kinds can be planted, but for the latter month only the earliest 
varieties should be used, as the late varieties will get mildewed before 
they bring a crop. Peas will bear much better if some brush or rods 
are stuck in the diills to support them, except the very dwarf kinds. 



60 



Blchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Extra Early, or First and 
Best. This is tlie earliest Pea cul- 
tivated ; very popular with the small 
market gardeners here, who have 
rich grounds. It is very productive 
and good flavored. The stock I sell 
is as good as any sold in the coun- 
try, not surpassed by any, no mat- 
ter whose name is put before "Extra 
Early." 

Early l%a§liiii§^tou, Early 
May or Frame, which are all 
nearly the same thing ; is about ten 
days later than the Extra Early. 
It is very productive, and keeps 
longer in bearing than the fore- 
going kind. Pods a little smaller. 
Very popular about New Orleans. 

Tom T li H 111 to. Very dwarf 
and quite productive. Can be cul- 
tivated in rows a foot apart; re- 
quires no branches or sticks. 

Eaxtoii's Alpha. This is a 
variety of recent introduction ; it is 
the earliest wrinkled variety in cul- 
tivation ; of delicious flavor and very 
proliflc. This variety deserves to 
be recommended to all who like a 
first-class pea.' It will come into 
general cultivation when better 
known. 

American AVoiider. (New. ; 
A wrinkled pea of dwarf growth, 10 
to 12 inches ; it is proliflc, early and 
of fine quality; it comes in after the Extra Early. 

Bisliop's Dwarf Eong Pod. An early dwarf variety; very 
stout and branching; requires no sticks, but simply the earth drawn 
round the roots. It is very productive and of excellent quality. 




Extra Eaiiv or Fiist aud Best. 



A green, wrinkled variety of very 
the market, but recommended for 



Cliampion of Eiig^laiid 

fine flavor ; not profitable for 
family use. 

McEeaii's Advancer. This is another green, wrinkled variety, 
about two weeks earlier than the foregoing kind. 

McLean's Eittle Gem. A dwarf, wrinkled variety, of recent 
introduction. It is early, very prolific and of excellent flavor. Ee- 
quires no sticks. 

Eaxton's Prolific Eong- Pod. A green marrow pea of good 
quality. Pods are long and well filled. It is second early, and can be 
recommended for the use of market gardeners, being very prolific. 



For the Soutkeni States. Gl 



£iig:ciiic. A white wrinkled variety, of fine flavor ; it is of the 
same season as the Advancer. Cannot be too highly recommended for 
family use. 

I>^varfBlue Imperial. A very good bearer if planted early; 
pods are large and well filled. 

Royal Dwarf Marrow. Similar to the large Marrowfat, but 
of dwarf habit. 

Black. Eyed Marrowfat. This kind is planted more fo^' the 
market than any other. It is very productive, and when young, quite 
tender. Grows about four feet high. 

Larg^e White MarroM''fat. Similar to the last variety, except 
that it grows about two feet taller, and is less productive. 

Dwarf Sugar. A variety of w^hich the whole pod can be used 
after the string is drawn off from the back of the pod. Three feet 
high. 

Tall l§ug;s%r. Has the same qualities as the foregoing kind, only 
grows taller, and the pods are somewhat larger, Neither of these two 
varieties are very pbpular here. 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in them, caused 
by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod is forming, when it deposits 
its eg'f^ in it. Later the insect perfects itself and comes out of the dry 
pea, leaving the hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destroyed, and they grow equally as 
w^ell as those without holes. Market gardeners in this neighborhood 
who have been ]:)lanting the Extra Early Peas for years, will not take 
them without holes, and consider these a trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS. 

There are a great many varieties of Cow Peas, different in color 
and growth. They are planted mostly for fertilizing purposes, and 
are sown broad-cast ; when in a good stand, and of sufficient height, 
they are i^lowed under. The Clay Pea is the most popular. There 
are several varieties called crowders,, which do not grow as tall as the 
others, but produce a great many pods, which are used green, the 
same as snap-beans, and if dried, like dried beans, make a very good 
dish. The crowders are of an oblong shape, almost pointed at one 
end ; they are on an average larger than the other Field Peas. Lady 
Peas are small, white, with a black eye; they are generally planted 
between corn, so that they can run up on it. Dry, they are considered 
the very best variety for cooking. 

PEPPER. 

PiMENT (Fr.), Spanischer Pfeffer (Ger.), Pimento (Sp.). 



Bell or Bull Nose. 
Sweet Spanish Monstrous. 
Sw^eet Ruby King. 



Long Red Cayenne. 
Red Cherry. 
Bird Eye. 



New Golden Dawn Mango. I Chili or Tabasco. 

Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot-bed. Seed 
should be sown in January, and when large enough transplanted into 



62 



Bichard FroUcher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



the ground in rows from one and a half to two feet apart, and a foot 
to a foot and a half in the rows. There are more Peppers raised here 
than in other sections of the country ; the hot varieties are used for 
seasoning and making pepper sauce; the mild variety is highly es- 
teemed for salad. Care should be taken not to grow different kinds 
close together, as they mix very readily. 




Sweet Spauisli or Moustrous Pepper. 



Sweet Pepper. Ruby King. 



Sweet Spanish, or Moustrou§. A very popular variety, much 
cultivated. It is very mild, grows to a large size, tapering towards the 
end. and, when green, is used as a salad. Superior for that purpose 
to any other kind. 

Sweet Pepper, Ruby King-. This variety grows to a larger 
size than the Sweet Spanish Monstrous, and is of different shape. The 
fruit is from 5 to 6 inches long by about 3 to 4 inches in diameter, and 
of a bright red color. It is remarkabh/ mild and pleasant in flavor, 
and can be sliced and eaten as a salad, the same as the Spanish Mon- 
strous. Single plants ripen from 8 to 10 fruits, making this variety 
both productive and profitable. A decided acquisition. 

New^ Oolden Dawn Mang:o. This new sweet pepper attracted 
much attention last season, and was admired by all who saw it. I be- 
lieve it to be all the originator claims for it. In shape and size it re- 
sembles the Bell. Color, a bright icary golden yellow ; very brilliant 
and handsome. Single plants ripen from twelve to twenty-four fruit.s^ 
making them productive and profitable. They are entirely- exempt 
from any fiery taste or flavor, and can be eaten as readily as an apple. 

Bell or Bull Nose. Is a large oblong variety which is not sweet 
or mild, as thought by some. The seeds are very hot. Used for pick- 
ling. 



For the Southern States. 



63 





Eed Cherry Pepper. 



Long Red Cayenne Pepper. 



IiOii§: Red Cayenne. Is very hot and pungent. Cultivated 
here and used for pepper sauce and seasoning purposes. There are two 
varieties ; one is long and straight, and the other like shown in cut, 
which is the only kind I keep. 

Red Clierry . A small roundish variety, very hot and productive. 

Bird Eye. Small, as the name indicates. It is very hot and 
used principally for pepper vinegar. 

Chili or Tabasco. A small variety, from three-fourths to an 
inch long. It is strong, and used for pepper sauce more than any 
other sort. 

POTATOES. 
PoMME DE Terke (Fr.), Kartoffel (Ger.). 



Early Rose. 

Breese's Peerless. 

Russets. 

Extra Early Vermont. 



Snowflake. 
Beauty of Hebron. 
White Elephant. 



Potatoes thrive and produce best in a light, dry but rich soil. 
Well decomposed stable manure is the best, but, if it cannot be had, 
cotton seed meal, bone dust, or any other fertilizer should be used to 
make the ground rich enough. If the ground was planted the fall 
previous with Cow Peas, which were plowed under, it will be in good 
condition for Potatoes. Good sized tubers should be selected for 
planting, which can be cut in pieces not too small ; each piece ought 
to contain at least three eyes. Plant in drills from two to three feet 
apart, according to the space and how to be cultivated afterwards. 
For field culture, two and a half to three feet apart ; for garden, two 
feet will answer. We plant potatoes here from end of December to 
end of March, but the surest time is about the first of February. If 
planted early they should be planted deeper than if planted late, and 
hilled up as they grow. If potatoes are planted shallow and not hilled 
soon, they will suffer more, if caught by a late frost, than if planted 
deep and hilled up well. Early potatoes have not the same value here 



;-Ji i LL-t-JL J. I .U .l i .UJJUJ I .J L»l-J-Ji-i 



61 Fddiard FroUcher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



as in the North, as the time of planting is so long, and very often the 
first planting gets cut down by a frost, and a later planting, which may 
just be peeping through the ground, will escape and produce in ad- 
vance of the first planted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised here 
if planted in August ; if the autumn is not too dry they will bring nice 
tubers by end of November. They should not be cut if planted at this 
time of the year, but planted whole. They should be put in a moist 
place before planting, so they may sprout. The early varieties are 
preferable for this time of planting. 

I haye been handling several thousand barrels of potatoes every 
season for planting, and make Seed-Potatoes a specialty. The potatoes 
I sell are Eastern grown, which, as every one interested in ]3otato 
culture knows, are superior and preferable to \Yestern growh. 

I have tried and introduced all new kinds here ; but of late so 
many have come out that it is almost impossible to keep up with 
them. New varieties of potatoes come out with fancy prices, but these 
prices for new potatoes do not pay here, as we can keep none over for 
seed, and any person raising for the market would not realize a cent 
more for a new fancy variety per barrel, than for a barrel of good 
Peerless or Early Eose. Earliness is no consideration, as we plant 
from December to end of March. Somebody may plant Early Eose 
in December and another in February, and those planted in February 
come to the market first ; it depends entirely upon the season. If 
late frosts set in, early planted potatoes will be cut down, and those 
just coming out of the ground will not be hurt. The Jackson White 
has given but little satisfaction the last four years, except in cases 
where planted very early. The yield was very good, but the quality 
poor and very knotty. Perhaps this was the fault of the season. It 
is hardly planted any more for the market. Up to now the Peerless 
is the standard variet3\ Among the new kinds I have tried, I find 
the White Elephant to be a fine potato. It is a very strong grower, 
tubers oblong, very productive, good quality and flavor. It is late, and 
will come in at the end of the season if planted with the earlier varie- 
ties. The Extra Early Vermont, Beauty of Hebron, Snowflake and 
Early Eose for early, and Peerless and White Elephant for late, are 
as good varieties as exist, and it is not likely that we will have anything 
better b3^ new introductions. Most people are not careful enough in 
selecting their seed. Some of the potatoes sold in this market for 
seed are not fit for planting. 

Early Rose, This is, without any doubt, the best potato for the 
table. It is oval, very shallow-eyed, pink-skinned, very dry, and 
mealy when boiled. It has not become so popular as it deserves as a 
market variety, as pink or red potatoes do not sell so well here as the 
white kinds. This variety should not be planted too soon, from the 
fact that they make small stalks, and if cut down by frost, they suft'er 
more than other varieties. No better potato for family use. Ever>' 
one who plants potatoes ought to plant some of this variety, but 
they want rich, light soil to grow to iierfeetion. 

B re ese' s Peerless. Thirteen years ago this variety was 
introduced, yet at present it is the leading variety for market as well as 



For the Southern States. 



65 



for family use. Skin dull white, sometimes slightly russetted ; eyes 
few and shallow, round, occasionally oblong ; grows to a large size ; 
very productive and earlier than the Jackson White. As white pota- 
toes are more salable than pinkish kinds, and as this variety is hand- 
some in appearance, and of good quality, it has become the general 
favorite in this section. 

Russets. This kind is still planted by some. It is round, red- 
dish and slightly russetted. Eyes deep and many. Very productive, 
but not so fine a quality as some others. Does best in sandy soil, such 
as we have along the lake coast. If the season is dry it will do well, 
but in a wet season, this variety will rot quicker than any other. 

Extra Early Ver- 
iiioiit. Very similar to 
the Early Rose, but of 
a stronger growth ; a 
little earlier, and the 
tubers are more uni- 
form and larger. It is 
an excellent table vari- 
ety. 

Snowllakc. This is 
a very early variety. 
Tubers good medium 
size; elongated, very 
uniform and quite pro- 
ductive. Eyes Hat on 
the body of the tuber, 
but compressed on the 
seed end. Skin white, 
flesh very fine grained, 
and Avhen boiled, snow- 
white. 

Beauty of Hebron. 
I have tried this variety 
thoroughly, and found 
it in every particular as 
has been represented. 
It is earlier than the 
Early Rose, which re- 
sembles it very much, 
being a little lighter and 
more russetted in color. 
It is very productive 
and of excellent table 
quality ; more mealy 
than the Early Rose, but 
Extra Early Vermont. smaller. 




llVhite Elephant. This variety has again given entire satisfac- 
tion the past season. The tubers are large and of excellent quality ; 
5 



66 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Saowflake. 
planted alongside of the Peerless, it produced fully one-third more than 
that varietA^ 

THE SWEET POTATO. 

Convolvulus batatas. 

The Sweet Potato is next to corn the most important food crop in 
the South, They are a wholesome and nutritious diet, good for man 
and beast. Though cultivated to a limited extent on the sandy lands 
of New Jersey and some of the middle States, it thrives best on the 
light rich lands of the South, which bring their red and golden fruits 
to greatest perfection under the benign rays of a southern sun. It is a 
plant of a warm climate, a child of the sun, much more nutritious than 
the Irish Potato on account of the great amount of saccharine matter 
it contains, and no southern table should befound without it from the 
first day of August till the last day of Ma^*. Some plant early in 
spring the potato itself in the prepared ridges, and cut the vine from 
the potato when large enough, and plant them out ; others start the 
potatoes in a bed prepared expressly for that purpose, and slip off the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these out. The latter method will 
produce the earliest potatoes ; others who set out the vines, say that 
they make the largest tubers. In preparing the land the soil should 
be thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid off about five feet apart, well 
drawn up and rather flat on top. If everything is ready, and time for 
planting has arrived, do not wait for a rain, make a paste of clay and 
cow manure ; in this dip the roots of the slips and press the earth 
firmly around them. Old slips are more tenacious of life than young 
ones, and w'ill under these circumstances answer best. Watering 
afterwards, if dry weather continues, of course, will be beneficial. 
Otherwise plant your vines or slips just before or after a rain. Two 
feet apart in the row is considered a good distance. The ridges 
should never be disturbed by a plow from the time they are made 
until the potatoes are ready to be dug. 



For the Southern States. 67 



Scrape off the grass and young weeds with the hoe, and pull up the 
large ones b}^ hand. Crab grass is peculiarly inimical to the sweet 
potato, and should be carefully kept out of the patch. The vines 
should never be allowed to take root between the rows. Sweet pota- 
toes should be dug before a heavy frost occurs ; a very light one will 
do no harm. The earth should be dry enough to keep it from sticking 
to the potatoes. The old fashioned potato bank is the best arrange- 
ment for keeping them, the main points being a dry place and venti- 
lation. 

Varieties generally cultivated in the South. 

The Yam. Taking into consideration quality and productive- 
ness, the Yam. stands at the head of the list. Frequently, when baked, 
the saccharine matter in the shape of candy will be seen hanging to 
them in strings. Skin and flesh yellow, and very sweet. Without a 
doubt, the best potato for family use. 

Southern ^ueen. Very similar to the former, but smoother, 
the tubers having no veins or very few ; it is earlier. 

Shanghai or California Yam. This is the earliest variety 
we have, frequently, under favorable circumstances, giving good 
sized tubers two months after planting the vine. Very productive, 
having given 300 bushels per acre when planted early and on rich 
land. Is almost the only kind cultivated for the New Orleans market. 
Skin dull white or yellow, flesh white, dry and mealy, in large speci- 
mens frequently stringy. 

There are some other varieties of Sweet Potatoes highly prized in 
the West, but not appreciated here. The Eed and Yellow Nanse- 
mond are of a flne quality and productive, but will not sell so well as 
the California Yam when taken to market. For home consumption 
thej' are fine, and deserve to be cultivated. 

PUMPKIN. 

PoTiRON (Fr.), KiiRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza (Sp.). 

Kentucky Field. Cashaw Crook Neck. 

Large Cheese. 

Are generally grown in the field, wdth the exception of the Ca- 
shaw, which is planted in the garden ; but great care must be taken 
not to plant them close to Squashes or Melons, as they will mix and 
spoil their quality. Plant in hills from eight to twelve feet apart. 

Kentucky Field. Large round, soft shell, salmon color; very 
productive ; best for stock. 

Lar^e Cheese. This is of a bright orange, sometimes salmon 
color, fine grained, and used for the table or for stock feeding. 

Cashaw (Crook. Neck.) This is very extensively cultivated in 
the South for table use. There are two kinds, one all yellow, and the 
other green striped with light yellow color. The latter is the prefer- 
able kind; the flesh is fine grained, yellow and very sweet. It keeps 
well. This variety takes the place here of the Winter Squashes, which 
are very little cultivated. 



68 



Richard FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



RADISH. 

Radies, Rave (Fr.), Radies, Rettig (Ger.), Rabano (Sp.)- 



Early Long Scarlet. 
Early Scarlet Turnip. 
Golden Globe. 
Early Scarlet Olive-shaped. 
White Summer Turnip. 



Scarlet Half Long French. 
Scarlet Olive-shaped, White- 
tipped or French Breakfast. 
Black Spanish (Winter). 
Chinese Rose (Winter). 



This is a very i3opular vegetable, and grown to a large extent. 
The ground for radishes should be rich and mellow. The early small 
varieties can be sown broad-cast among other crops, such as beets, 
peas, spinach, or where lettuce has been transplanted. Early varie- 
ties are sown in this section the whole year, but during summer they 
require frequent watering to make them grow quickly. The Yellow 
and White Summer Turnip are best for planting during the summer 
months. The Half Long Scarlet French is the only red kind raised 
for the New Orleans market, and all the other cities in the United 
States taken together do not use as many of tJiat one variety as New 
Orleans does. I have sold nearly two thousand pounds of the seed 
per annum for the last twelve years. 

Early Long Scarlet. This is a very desirable variety ; it is of a 
bright scarlet color, short top, and very brittle. 





Golden Globe. 



Early Long Scarlet. 



^■WBWHeB!--<«W^^I^*" 



For the Southern States. 69 





Scarlet Half Long French. Early Scarlet Turnip. 

Early Scarlet Turnip. A small, round variet}^ the favorite 
kind for family use. It is very early, crisp and mild when young. 

Golden Olobe. This stands the heat better than the foregoing 
kinds. It is of an oblong shape, and of a beautiful bright yellow color. 
It should be sown very thinly. Best adapted for summer and fall 
sowing. The variety I keep is of the finest strain, and as good as any 
ever sold. 

Early Scarlet Olive<»sliaped. This is similar to the Half 
Long French, but shorter, and not quite so bright in color. It is 
early and of good quality. Top short. 

H^hite Slimmer Turnip. This is a summer and fall variety. 
Oblong in shape, skin white, stands the heat well, but not much used. 

Scarlet Half Eong* Frencli. This is the most popular Eadish 
for the market. It is of a bright scarlet color, and when well grown, 
from two to three inches long, very brittle and tender. 

Scarlet 01ive>="Shai>ed, White tipped, or French Breakfast. 

A handsome Radish of the same shape as the foregoing kind, with 
end and root white. Quite tender. 

Black Spanish. (Winter.) This is sown daring fall and early 
winter. It is oval in shape, very solid, and stands considerable cold 
weather without being hurt. It can be sown broad-cast between 
Turnips, or planted in rows a foot apart, and thinned out from three 
to four inches in the rows. 

Chinese Rose. (Winter.) This is of a half long shape, bright 
rose color. It is as hardy as the last described kind, but not so popu- 
lar. 

ROQUETTE. 

EOQUETTE (Fr.). 

Sown from September to March. It is used as a salad, resembling 
the Cress in taste. 



70 



Bichard Frotsdter's Almanac and Garden Manual 



SALSIFY, OR Oyster Plant. 

Salsifis (Fr.), Haferwuezel (Ger.), Ostra Vegetal (Sp.). 

A vegetable which ought to be more cui- 
tivated than it is. It is prepared in different 
ways. It partakes of the flavor of oysters. 
It should be sown in the fall of the year ; not 
later than November. The ground ought to 
be manured the spring previous, deeply 
spaded up, and w^ell pulverized. Sow in drills 
about ten inches apart, and thin out from 
three to four inches in the rows. 

SPINACH. 

Eptnard (Fr.), Spinat (Ger.), Espinago (Sp.). 
Extra Lap«ge Leaved Savoy. 
Broad Leaved Flanders. 

A great deal of this is raised for the New 
Orleans market. It is very popular. Sown 
from September to end of March. If the fall 
is dry and hot, it is useless to sow it, as the 
seeds require moisture and cool nights to 
make them come up. The richer the ground 
the larger the leaves. 

Extra L<arg:e Leaved Savoy. The 
leaves of this variety are large, thick and a 
little curled. Very good for family use. 

Broad X<eaved Flanders. This is the 
standard variety, both for market and family 
use. Leaves large, broad and very succulent. 




Salsify or Oyter Plant. 



SORREL. 

Oseille (Fr.), Sauerampfer (Ger.), Acedera (Sp.). 

Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year, and 
thinned out from three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used for 
various purposes in the kitchen. It is used the same as Spinach ; also, 
in soups and as a salad. 

SQUASH. 

CouRGE (Fr.), KiiRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza Tontanera (Sp.). 



Early Bush, or Patty Pan. 
Long Green, or Summer Crook- 
neck. 



London Vegetable Marrow. 
The Hubbard. 
Boston Marrow. 



Sow during March in hills from three to four feet apart, six- to 
eight seeds. When well up, thin them out to three of the strongest 
plants. For a succession they can be planted as late as June. Some 
who protect b^^ boxes, plant as soon as the first of February, but it is 
best to wait till the ground gets warm. When it is time to plant Corn, 
it is also time to plant Squash. 



For the Southern States. 




Early Busli or Patty Pan. Long Green or Summer Grook Neclc. The Hubbard. 

Early Bush, or Patty Pan. Is the earliest and the only pop- 
ular kind here. All other varieties are very little cultivated, as the 
Cashaw Purapkin, the striped variety, takes their place. It is of dwarf- 
ish habit, grows bushy, and does not take much room. 

Long: Oreen, or Sumitier Crook-Neck. Tliis is a very 
strong grower, and continues in bearing longer than the first named 
kind. It is of good quality, but not so popular. 

London Vegetable Marrow. A European variety, very little 
cultivated here. It grows to a good size and is very dry. Color, 
whitish with a yellow tinge. 

The Hubbard. This is a Winter Squash, very highly esteemed 
in the East, but hardly cultivated here. 

Boston Marrow. Cultivated to a large extent North and East 
for winter use, where it is used for custards, etc. It keeps for a long 
time and is of excellent quality, but not esteemed here, as most people 
consider the Southern grown Cashaw Pumpkin superior to any Win- 
ter Squash, 

TOMATO. 

T0MA.TE (Fr.), LlEBESAPFEL (Gcr.), TOMATE (Sp). 



Acme. (New.) 
Paragon. (New.) 
Livingston's Perfection. 
Livingston's Favorite. 



Extra Early Bwarf Eed. 
Early Large Smooth Eed. 

TiLDEN. 

Trophy, (Selected). 

Large Yellow. 

Seed should be sown in January, in hot-beds, or in boxes, which 
must be placed in a sheltered spot, or near windows. In March they 
can be sown in the open ground. Tomatoes are generally soM'n too 
thick, and become too crowded when two to three inches high, which 
makes the plants too thin and spindly. If they are transplanted when 
two to three inches high, about thi^e inches apart each way, they will 
become short and sturdy, and will not suffer when planted out into 
the open ground. Plant them from three to four feet apart. Some 
varieties can be planted closer ; for instance, for the Extra Early, which 
is of very dwarfish habit, two and a half feet apart is enough. 



■bL 



72 Bichard Frot!<c]ier's Ahnaiuw and Garden Manual 




Selected Trophy. 



Thev should be sup- 
ported "by stakes. When 
allowed to grow up wild, 
the fruit which touches 
the ground will rot. For 
a late or fall crop the seed 
should be sown towards 
the latter end of May and 
during June. 

Extra Early Dwarf. 
This is the earliest in cul- 
tivation. It is dwartish 
in habit ; fruit larger than 
the following kind, and 
more flat ; bright scarlet 
in color and "very pro- 
ductive. For an early 
market variety it cannot 
be surpassed. 




For the Southern States. 




The New x\cme. 



Early Larg^c Sniootli Red. One of the earliest ; medium size ; 
skin light scarlet ; smooth and productive. 

Tildeii. This has been the standard variety for family gardens 
as well as market, but has been supplanted to a great extent by later 
introductions It is of a good shape, brilliant scarlet, and from above 
medium to large in size, and keeps well. 

Selected Trophy. A very large, smooth Tomato, more solid and 
heavy than any other kind. It is not quite as early as the Tilden. Has 
become a favorite variety. 

L<arg'e YellOTi^ This is similar in shape to the Large Red. but 
more solid. Not very popular. 

Acme. This is a new variety, and the prettiest and most solid 
Tomato ever introduced. It is of medium size, round and very smooth, 



Bichard Frotsdie/ '^ Alinanac and Garcien Jfannal 




Para<?on, 



a strong grovrer. and a good and long bearer. They are the perfection 
of Tomatoes for family use, but will not answer for shipping purposes ; 
the skin is too tender, and cracks when fully ripe. Of ail the varieties 

introduced, none yet has 
surpassed this kind, 
when all qualities are 
brought into considera- 
tion. It does well about 
here where the ground is 
iieavy. 

Para^ou. This vari- 
eiy has lately come into 
-lice. It is very solid, 
< f a bright reddish crim- 
son color, comes in about 
the same time as the Til- 
den, but is heavier in foli- 
age, and protects its fruit. 
It is productive and keeps 
long in bearing. Well 
adapted for shipping. 

L.iviiis^§toii'§ Perfection. 

Very similar to the above in shape 
and color. 

Livingston's FaTorite. This 

is the latest novelty ; it is as perfect 
in shape and as solid as the Acme, 
but much larger, and of a handsome 
dark red color. I had some sent 
to me by a customer, and they 
surely were the finest specimen of 
tomatoes I ever saw, and were ad- 
mired by everybody who saw them. 
They will keep well, and do not 

T- . . , TT ■. crack. 

Livingston s Favorite. 

The seed of the last four varieties are raised for me by the origiuators, Messrs. 
Livington's Sons, and can be relied upon as being true "to name and of superior 
qnahty. 

TURNIP. 

Xavet <Yi\) EuBE ';Ger.\ Xabo Comun Sp.'. 




Eaelt Rep oe Purple Top, 

(strap-leaved). 
Eaely White Flat Dutch. 

i,strap-leaved'. 
PuEPLE Top Globe. 
LaectE White Globe. 
PoMERiAX Globe. 
White Speixg. 
Tellow Abeedeen. 



I GoLDE>- Ball. 

Ambee Globe. 

Eaelt Pueple Top Munich. 
I ExTEA Eaelt Pueple Top. 
I Pueple Top Euta Baga. 

Impeoved Euta Baga. 

Extea Eaelt White French, oe 
White EctG Tuexip mewi. 



Turnips do best in new ground. When the soil has been worked 
long, it should receive a top dressing of land-plaster or ashes. If stable 



For the SutiUiern Statt^i 




Early Red or Purple Top, (stiap-leaved). 



manure is used the ground" bhould be manured the spring previous 
to sowing, so it may be well incorporated with the soil. When fresh 
manure is used the turnips are apt to become speckled. Sow from end 
of July till October for fall and winter, and in January, February and 
March for spring and summer use. They are generally sown broad- 
cast, but the Euta Baga should be sown in drills, or rather ridges, ftnd 



76 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



should not be sown later than the end of August ; the Golden Ball and 
Aberdeen, not later than the end of September. The White Flat 
Dutch, Early ^Spring and Pomerian Globe are best for spring, but also 
good for autumn. 




Early White Flat Dutch, (strap-leaved). 

Early Red or Purple Top. (Strap-Leaved.) This is one of 
the most popular kinds. It is flat, with a small tap-root, and a bright 
purple top. The leaves are narrow and grow erect from the bulb. The 
flesh is finely grained and rich. 

Early White Flat Dutch. (Strap-Leaved.) This is similar to 
the above in shape, but considered about a week earlier. It is very 
popular. 

Purple Top Olohe. A variety of recen| introduction; same 
shape as the Pomerian Globe, but with purple top. Fiue variety for 
the table or for stock. It is not quite so early as the Early Eed or 
Purple Top. I recommend it very highly. 

Earg'e l^hite Criohe, A very large variety, mostly grown for 
stock. It can be used for the table wdien young. Flesh coarse, but 
sweet ; tops very large. 

Pomerian Olohe, This is selected from the above. It is 
smoother and handsomer in shape ; good to plant early in spring. 
When pulled before it is too large it is a very salable turnip in the 
market. 

"White Spriug** This is similar to the White Flat Dutch; not 
quite so large, but rounder in shape. The tops are larger ; it is earlj^, 
a good quality, and best adapted for spring planting. 

Yello\%" Aberdeen. This is a variety very little cultivated h-ere. 
It is shaped like the Euta Baga, color yellow wuth purple top. Good 
for table use or feeding stock. 

Robertson^s Oolden Ball, is the best of the yellow Turnips 
for table use. It is very smooth, oval in shape, and of a beautiful 
oFange color. Leaves are small. Should be sown in the fall of the 



For the Southern States. 



77 



year, and always in drills, so that the plants can be thinned out and 
workedo This kind ought to be more cultivated. 

Amber Olobe. This is very similar to the above kind. 

Early Purple Top Munich. A new variety from Germany; 
flat, with red or purple top ; same as the American variety, but fifteen 
days earlier to mature. It is very hardy, tender, and of fine flavor. 
Recommended highly. 

Extra Early Purple Top. Same color and shape as the Early 
Purple Top, hut earlier. Larger than the Purple Top Munich. 

Purple Top Kuta Bag^a or Swede. This is grown for feed- 
ing stock, and also for table use. It is oblong in shape, yellow flesh, 
very solid. Should always be sown in rows or ridges. 

Improved Purple Top Ruta Bag'a. Similar to the above; 
bulb smoother, with but few fibrous roots. 




Purple Top Globe. 



78 Bidiard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Pomerian Globe. 




Improved Purple Top Kuta Baga. 



Extra Early ^Vliite Freocli, or l¥liite Egg Turnip. This 
is a lately introduced variety ; is said to be very early, tender and crisp. 
The shape of it is oblong, resembling an egg. Having tried it, I found 
it as represented, quickly growing, tender and sweet. It will never be- 
come a favorite market variety, as only flat kinds sell well in this 
market. It has to be pulled up soon, as it becomes pithy shortly after 
attaining maturitv. 



For the Southern States. 



79 




Extra Early white French, or White Egg Turnip. 



SWEET AND MEDICINAL HERBS. 



Some of these possess culinary as well as medicinal properties. 
Should be found in every garden. Ground where they are to be sown 
should be well prepared and pulverized. . Some of them have very fine 
seed, and it is only necessary, after the seed is sown, to press the ground 
with the back of the spade ; if covered too. deep they cannot come up. 
Early spring is the best time to sow them— some, such as Sage, Eose- 
mary. Lavender and Basil, are best sown in a frame and afterwards 
transplanted into the garden. 

Anise, Pimpinelle Anisum. 

Balm, Melisse Officinalis. 

Basil, large and small leaved, Ocymum Basllicum. 

Bene, Sesamum Orientate. 

Borage, Borago Officinalis. 

Caraway, Carum Garni. 

Dill, Anethum Graveolens. 

Fennel, sweet, Anethum Foeniculum. 

Lavender, Zavendula Vera. 

Majoram, sweet, Origanum May or am. 

Pot Marigold, Calendula Officinalis. 

Rosemary, Rosemary Officinalis. 

Rue, Buta Graveolens. 

Sage, Salvia Officinalis. 

Summer Savory, Satureja Hortensis. 

Thyme, Thymas Vulgaris. 

Wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium. 



80 



Richard Frotacher' s Almanac and Garden Manual 



GRASS AND FIELD SEEDS. 



I have often been asked what kind of Grass Seed is the best for 
this latitude, but so far I have never been able to answer this question 
satisfactorily. For hay I do not think there is anythin^^- better than 
the Millet. For permanent grass I have almost come to the conclusion 
that none of the grasses used for this purpose North and West will 
answer. Eye, Ked Oats and Eescue Grass will make winter pasturage 
in this latitude. Different kinds of Clover answer very well duriug 
spring, but during the hot summer months I have never found any- 
thing to stand and produce except the Bermuda and Crabgrass, which 
are indigenous to the South. The Bermuda, in my opinion, is better 
suited for pasturage than hay, as it is rather short and hard when 
cured. I have had so many applications for Guinea Grass that I have 
been induced to import some from Jamaica, where it is used altogether 
for pasturage. It seems to grow rank, but so far I am not enabled to 
pass an opinion upon it ; it looks rather coarse for hay. Having tried 
Guinea Grass I have come to the conclusion that it will not answer 
here, from the fact that it will freeze cut every year. It \\ill pro- 
duce a large quantity^ of hay or green fodder, but has to be resown 
every spring. The seeds that are raised here are light, and do not 
germinate freely. To import seed every year is rather troublesome. 
The Johnson Grass, advertised by some as Guinea Grass, is not Guinea 
Grass ; it is much coarser, and* can hardly be destroyed after having 
taken hold of a piece of ground. Some are enthusiastic about Alfalfa 
or Lucerne ; others, w^hose opinion ought also to be respected, say it 
will not do here. There exists a great difference of opinion in regard 
to which grass seed is most suitable for the South. 

Red Clover, Should be sown either during fall or early in 
spring. Six to eight pounds to an acre. 

White Dutch Clover. A grass sown for pasturage at the rate 
of four to six pounds to the acre. Should be sown in early spring. 

Alsike Clover, This is also called Hybrid Clover. It is a na- 
tive of Sweden, a cold climate, and does not succeed so well here as 
the other kinds, because of burning out in summer. 

Alfalfa or Chili Clover, or Fiench. L<iieeriie. This va- 
riety does well .here, but the ground has to be well prepared and deeply 
plov/ed. It will not do in low wet ground. Should be sown in Janu- 
ary or February ; eight to ten pounds per acre. (See letter of E. M. 
Hudson at end of Seed Catalogue.) 

Kentucky Blue Grass. (Extea Cleaned.) Should be sown 
in dry soil. Tvro bushels per acre. 

MeadoAV Fescue, Festuca pratensis. As a pasture grass I con- 
sider this one of the most valuable. It is not affected by dry weather, 
as its roots penetrate the earth 12 to 15 inches ; it is much relished by 
all kinds of stock on account of its long and tender leaves. It yields 
a very superior hay when cured. It has been grown very little in this 
country and is deserving of much more attention. Sow in spring or 
fall. 2 bushels to the acre. In some sections it is called Randall 



For the SouLherii tiiates. bl 



Grass. This should not be coiifoimded with the English Kye Grass, 
offered by some dealers as the same variety. 

Orchard Grass. This is one of the best grasses for pasturing. 
It groNYS quickly, much more so than the Blue Grass. Can be sown 
either in fall or spring. Sow one to one and a half bushels per acre. 
(See extract from '"Farmers' Book of Grasses.") 

Rescue Oras§. A forage plant from Australia, It grows during 
winter. Sow the seed in the fall of the year, but not before the Weather 
gets cool, as it will not sprout so long as the ground is warm. Sow 
ll bushels seed to the acre. 

Hiiiig^ariaii Grass. This is a valuable annual forage plant, and 
good to make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre. It should be cut 
when in bloom. 

German Millet. Of all the Millets this is the best. It makes 
good hay, and produces heavily. Three pecks sown to the acre 
broad-cast secures a good stand. Can be sown from April till June, 
but the former month is the best time. Should be cut the same as the 
foregoing kind. 

Rye. Is sown during the fall months as late as December, for 
forage ; and for pasturage, during winter and spring. 

Barley, Fall. Can be sown fall and winter, but requires strong, 
good soil. Used here for forage during its green state. 

Red or Rust Proof Oats. It is only a few years since these 
oats have come into general cultivation. They are very valuable, 
and will save a great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of this variety 
has a reddish cast, and a peculiar long beard, and is very heavy. It 
is the only kind which will not rust in the Southern climate. They 
can be sown as early as October, but should be pastured down as 
soon as they commence to joint, till February. When the ground is 
low, or the season wet, this cannot well be done without destroying the 
w^hole crop. During January and February is the proper time, if no 
pasturing can be done. One to one and a half bushels per acre is suf- 
ficient. These oats have a tendency to stool, and therefore do not re- 
quire as much per acre as common oats. Those who have not already 
tried this variety should do so. 

Sorg^liuin. Is planted for feeding stock during the spring and 
early summer. For this purpose it should be sown as early in spring- 
as possible, in drills about two to three feet apart ; three to four quarts 
per acre. It makes excellent green fodder. 

Broom Corn. Can be planted the same as corn, but the hills 
closer together in the row. Six quarts will plant an acre. 

East India Millet. My Almanac of 1879 gave a full descrip- 
tion of this forage plant, written by E. M. Hudson, Esq. It has pro- 
ven to be all that has been claimed for it. 

Bermuda Grass. Almost everybody living in this section of 
the country knows this grass; it is planted as a Lawn Grass, and 
nothing will stand the sun better, or will make a prettier carpet, when 
kept short, than this grass. It is also very valuable as a pasture and 
hay grass. For the first time I have been able to obtain the seed of 
G 



82 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



tliis grass, which heretofore had to be propaga.ted by the roots. Six 
pounds will sow an acre. Should be planted in spring, but can be 
sown later. It takes from 20 to 25 days to sprout ; requires damp 
weather and hot sun; but when once up grows Tery rapidl5^ Price, 
$2.00 per ft ; postage, 16 cents per ft) extra. 

The following extracts have been taken, by permission, from the 
author, Dr. D. L. Phares, from his book just published, "Farmers' 
Book of Grasses." It is the most valuable work of the kind ever pub- 
lished in the: South, and should be in the hands of every one who 
takes an interest in the cultivation of grasses-. 

Copies for sale at publisher's price. Pai^er covers, 50 cents ; Cloth, 
75 cents ; postage paid. 

ORCHARD GRASS. 

{Dactylis Glomerata) 

Of all the grasses this is one of the most widely diffused, growing 
in xlfrica, Asia, and every country in Europe and all our States. It is 
more highly esteemed and commended than any other grass, by a lar- 
ger number pf farmers in most countries— a most decided proof of its 
great value and wonderful adaptations to many soils, climates and 
treatments. Yet, strange to say, though growing in England for 
many centuries, it was not appreciated in that country till carried 
there from Yirginia in 1764. But, as in the case of Timothy, soon after 
its introduction from America, it came into high favor among far- 
mers, and still retains its hold on their estimation as a grazing and 
hay crop. 

Nor is this strange when its many advantages and points of excel- 
lence are considered. It will grow well on any soil containing suffi- 
cient clay and not holding too much water. If the land be too tena- 
cious, drainage will remedy the soil; if worn out, a top dressing of 
stable manure will give it a good send-off, and it will furnish several 
good mowings the first year. It grows well between 29© and 48o lati- 
tude. It may be mowed from two to four times a year, according to 
the latitude, season and treatment ; yielding from one to three tons of 
excellent hay per acre on poor to medium land. In grazing and as 
hay most animals select it in preference among mixtures in other 
grasses. In lower latitudes it furnishes good winter grazing, as well 
as for spring, summer and fall. After grazing or mowing few grasses 
grow so rapidly (three or six inches per week), and are so soon 
ready again for tooth or blade. It is easily cured and handled. It is 
readily seeded, and catches with certainty. Its long, deeply penetrat- 
ing, fibrous roots enable it to sustain itself and grow vigorously dur- 
ing droughts that dry up other grasses, except tall oat grass, which 
has similar roots and characteristics. It grows well in open land§ 
and in forests of large trees, the underbush being all cleared off. I 
have had it grown luxuriantly even in beech woods, where the roots 
are superficial, in the crotches of roots and close to the trunks of trees. 
The hay is of high quality, and the young grass contains a larger per 
centage of nutritive digestible matter than anv other grass. It thrives 



For the Southern States. S3 



well without auy renewal on the same ground for thirty-tive, nay , 
forty years ; how much longer, I am not able to say. It is easily exter- 
minated when the land is desired for other croi)s. Is there any other 
grass for which so much can be said ? 

RED TOP GRASS. 

( Agrostis Vulga ris.) 

This is the best grass of England, the herd grass of the Southern 
States ; not in honor of any man, but, probably, because so well adapted 
to the herd. It is called also Fine Top, Burden's and Borden's Grass. 
Varying greatly in characters, according to soil, location, climate and 
culture, some botanists have styled it A. PohjmorpJia. It grows two to 
three feet high, and I have mown it when four feet high. It grows 
well on hill-tops and sides, in ditches, gullies and marshes, but de- 
lights in moist bottom land. It is not injured by overflows, though 
somewhat prolonged. In marshy land it produces a very dense, strong 
network of roots capable of sustaining the weight of men and animals 
walking over it. 

It furnishes considerable grazing during warm "spells" in winter, 
and in spring and summer an abundant supply of nutrition. It has 
a tendency, being very hardy, to increase in density of growth and ex- 
tent of surface, and will continue indefinitely, though easily subdued 
by the plow. 

Cut before maturing seed, it nmkes a good hay and large quantity. 
It seems to grow taller in the Southern States than it does further 
North, and to make more and better hay and grazing. Red Top and 
Timothy, being adapted to the same soil and maturing at the same 
time, do well together, and produce an excellent hay. But the Red Top 
will finally root out Timothy, and if pastured much it will do so sooner. 

Sow about two bushels (24 lbs.) per acre, if alone, in September, 
October, February, or March ; if with Timothy for hay, from 6 to 10 
pounds ; if with other grasses for pasture, 3 to 5 pounds. It is an ex- 
cellent pasture grass, and will grow on almost any kind of soil. 

KENTUCKY BLUE GRASS. 

(Poa Pratensls.) 

This is also called smooth meadow grass, spear grass, and green 
grass, all three very appropriate, characteristic names. But Blue is a 
misnomer for this grass. It is not blue, but 'green as grass,' and the 
greenest of grasses. The P. comjjvessa, flat-stalked meadow grass, 
wire grass, blue grass is blue, 'the true blue' grass from which the 
genus received its trivial name. 

Kentucky blue grass, known also in the Eastern States as June 
grass, although esteemed in some parts of America as the best of all 
pasture grasses, seems not to be considered very valuable among Eng- 
lish farmers except in mixtures- It is certainly a very desirable pas- 
ture grass however. Its very narrow leaves, one, two or more feet 
long, are in such ])rofusion, and cover the ground to such depth with 
their luxuriant growth, that a mere description could give no one an 
adequate idea of its beauty, quantity, and value ; that is on rich land. 



Si Bicliard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



On poor, sandy land, it degenerates sadly, as do other things uncon- 
genially located. 

Perennial, and bearing cold and drought well, it furnishes grazing 
a large part of the year. It is specially valuable as a winter and spring 
grass for the South. To secure the best winter results, it should be 
allowed a good growth in early fall, so that the ends of the leaves, being 
killed by frost, afford an ample covering for the under-parts which con- 
tinue to grow all winter, and afford a good bite whenever required by 
sheep, cattlQ, hogs and horses. In prolonged summer drought it dries 
completely, so that, if fired, it would burn off clean. But this occurs in 
Kentucky, where indeed it has seemed without fire, to disappear utter- 
ly ; yet, when rain came, the bright green spears promptly recarpeted 
the earth. 

With its underground stems and many roots, it sustains the heat 
and drought of the Southern States as well as those of Kentucky, 
where indeed it is subjected to severer trials of this kind than in the 
more Southern States. In fact, it bears the vicissitudes of our climate 
about as well as Bermuda grass, and is nearly as nutritious. 

Blue grass grows w^ell on hill tops, slopes, or bottom lands, if not 
too wet and too poor. It may be sown any time from September to 
April, preferably perhaps iu the latter half of February, or early in 
March. The best catch I ever had was sown the •20th of March, on 
unbroken land, from which trash, leaves, etc., had just been burned. 
The surface of the land should be cleaned of trash of all kinds, snaooth, 
even ; and if recently plowed and harrowed, it should be rolled also. 
This last proceeding is for compacting the surface in order to prevent 
the seed from sinking too deep in the ground. Without harrowing 
or brushing in, many of them get in too deep to come up, even when 
the surface of the land has had the roller over it. The first rain after 
seeding will put them in deep enough, as the seeds are very minute, 
and the spears of grass small as fine needles, and therefore unable to 
get out from under heavy cover. These spears are so small as to be 
invisible, except to close examination ; and in higher latitudes, this 
condition continues through the first year. Thus, some who have 
sown the blue grass seed, seeing the first year no grass, imagine they 
have been cheated, plant some other crop, and probably lose w4iat 
close inspection would have shown to be a good catch. This, however, 
is not apt to occur in the Southern tier of States, as the growth here is 
more rapid. The sowing mentioned above, made on the 20th of 
March, came up promptly, and in three months the grass was from six 
to ten inches high. One year here gives a finer growth and shovv^ than 
two in Kentucky, or any other State so far North. 

Sown alone, 20 to 26 pounds, that is, 2 bushels, should be used ; in 
mixtures, 4 to 6 pounds. 

ENGLISH OR PERENNIAL RYE GRx^SS^. 

I 

(Loliiun Perenne.) 

This is the first grass cultivated in England over two centuries ago, 
and at a still more remote period in France. It was long more widely 
know^n and cultivated than any other grass, became adapted to a 



For the Southern States. 



great variety of soils and coii<litioiis, and a vast minibor (seventy or 
more) of varieties produced, some of which wchv greatly improved, while 
others were inferior and became annuals. Introduced into the United 
States in the first quarter of the current century, it has never become 
very popular, although shown by the subjoined analysis of Way not to 
be deficient in nutritive matter. In 100 parts of the dried grass cut in 
bloom were albuminoids 11.85, fatty matters 3.17, heat-producing 
principles 42.21, woody fibre 35.20, ash 7.54. The more recent analysis 
of Wolff and Knopp, allowing for water, gives rather more nutritive 
matter than this. 

It grows rapidly, and yields heavy crops of seed ; makes good graz- 
ing, and good hay. But, as with all the Eye grasses, to make good hay, 
it must be cut before passing the blossom stage, as after that it deteri- 
orates rapidly. The roots being short, it does not bear drought well, 
and e:fhausts the soil, dying out in a few" years. In these respects it 
is liable to the same objections as Timothy. The stem, one to two feet 
high, has four to six purplish joints and as many dark green leaves ; 
the flexious spiked panicle, bearing the distant spikelets, one in each 
bend. 

It should be sown in August or September, at the rate of twenty-five 
or thirty pounds, or one bushel seed per acre. 

TALL MEADOW OAT GRASS. 

{Arrhenntherum Avenaceum.) 

Evergreen grass in Virginia, and other Southern States, and it is 
the Tall Oat (Arena eJatior) of Linseus. It is closely related to the 
common oat, and has a beautiful open panicle, leaning slightly to one 
side. "Spikelets two fiow^ered, and a rudiment of a third, open ; lowest 
flower staminate or sterile, with a long bent awn below^ the middle of 
the back."- (Flint.) 

It is widely naturalized and well adapted to a great variety of soils. 
On sandy, or gravelly soils, it succeeds admirably, growing two or three 
feet high. On rich, dry upland it grows from five to seven feet high. It 
has an abundance of perennial, long fibrous roots, penetrating deeply 
in the soil, being, therefc-re, less affected by drought or cold, and enab- 
led to yield a large quantity of foliage, winter and summer. These ad- 
vantages render it one of the very best grasses for the South, both for 
grazing (being evergreen) and for hay, admitting of being cut twice a 
year. It is probably the best winter grass that can be obtained. 

It will make twice as much hay as Timothy, and, containing a 
gTeater quantity of albuminoids and less of heat-producing principles, 
it is better adapted to the uses of the Southern farmer, while it exhausts 
the surface soil less, and may be grazed indefinitely, except after mow- 
ing. To make good hay it must be cut the instant it blooms, and, after 
being cut, must not get w^et by dew or rain, which damages it greatly 
in quality and appearance. 

For green soiling, it may be cut four or five tiines with favorable 
seasons. In from six to ten days after blooming, the seeds begin to 
ripen and fall, the upper ones first. It is, therefore, a little troublesome 
to save the seed. As soon as those at the top of the panicle ripen suffi- 



86 Rlc-liard FrotscJier's Ahnanar and Garden Manual 



fiently to begin to drop, the heads should be cut off and dried, when 
the seeds will all thresh out readily and be matured. After the seeds 
are ripe and taken off, the long abundant leaves and stems are still 
green, and being mowed make good hay. 

It may be sown in March or April, and mowed the same season ; 
but for heavier yield, it is better to sow in September or October. 
Along the more southerly belt, from the 3lo parallel southward, it may 
be sown in November and onward till the middle of December. When- 
ever sown it is one of the most certain grasses to have a good catch. 
Xot less thaij two bushels (11 pounds) per acre should be sown. Like 
Timothy, on inhospitable Soils, the root may sometimes become bulb- 
ous. The average annual nutrition yielded by this grass in the 
Southern belt, is probably twice as great as in Pennsylvania and other 
Xorthern States. 



JOHXSOX GRASS. 

\ Sorghum ha'lapense. i 

This has been called Cuba grass, Guinea grass, Egyptian grass, 
Means grass, Alabama Guinea gra^s, etc. 

It seems pretty well agreed now, however, to call it Johnson grass, 
and leave the name Guinea grass for the Panicum jumentorum, to 
which it properly belongs. 

It is true that in Mr. Howard's pamphlet, as well as in many period- 
icals and books, and in letters and common usage, this grass has been 
far more generally called Guinea grass than the true Guinea grass it- 
self, thus causing vast confusion. It is, therefore, assuredly time to 
call each by its right name. Johnson grass is perennial and has cane- 
like roots, or more properly, underground stems, from the size of a 
goose-quill to that of the little hnger. These roots are tender, and 
hogs are fond of and thrive on them in winter. The roots literally fill 
the ground near the surface, and every joint is capable of developing 
a bud. Hence the grass is readily propagated from root cuttings. It 
is also propagated from the seeds, but not always so certainly; for in 
some localities many faulty seeds are produced, and in other places 
no seeds are matured. Before sowing the seeds, therefore, they should 
be tested, as should all grass seeds indeed, in order to know what pro- 
portion will germinate, and thus what cpiantity per acre to sow One 
bushel of a good sample of this seed is sufficient for one acre of land. 

The leaf, stalk and panicle of this grass resemble those of other 
sorghums. It grows on any land where corn will grow ; and like the 
latter, the better the land the hea^ier the crop. On rich land the 
culms attain a size of over half an inch in diameter, and a height of 
seven feet. It should be cut while tender, and then all live stock are | 
fond of it; for a few weeks are sufficient to render it so coarse and 
hard that animals refuse it, or eat sparingly. 

A few testimonials are here quoted to give an idea of the produc- 
tiveness and value of this plant. In a letter published in the Rural 
Carolinian for 1871, Mr X. B. Moore, who had for more than forty 
years grown crops, speaks of this grass under the name of Guinea 
grass : 



For the SoutJiern States. Hi 



"My meadow consists of one hundred acres of alluvial land, near 
Augusta. * * * In winter I employ Vnit four men, who are 
enough to work my packing-press; in summer, when harvesting, 
double that number. In autumn I usually scarify both ways with 
sharp, steel-toothed harrows, and sow over the stubble a peck of red 
clover per acre, which, with volunteer vetches, comes off about the 
middle of May. The second yield of clover is uniformly eaten up by 
grasshoppers. The tap root remains to fertilize the then coming 
Guinea grass, which should be cut from two to three feet high. * * * 
On such land as mine, it will afford three or four cuttings if the season 
is propitious. I use an average of five tons of gypsum soon after the 
first cutting, and about the same quantity of the best commercial fer- 
tilizers, in March and April. * * * The grass, which is cut befo];e 
noon, is put up with horse sulky rakes, in cocks, before sun-down." 

Mr. Moore's income from this field was from seven thousand to ten 
thousand dollars a year. 

Mr. Goelsel, of Mobile, says : "It is undoubtedly the most profitable 
soiling plant yet introduced, and also promises to be tlie plant for our 
Southern hay stacks, provided it can be cut every three or four weeks." 

Note.— Recognizing all the above, I would say, that great care must 
betaken not to sow this grass near cultivated lands. If done, it should 
not be allowed to go to seed, as the wind will blow them off from the 
stalks, and when it gets amongst cane or other crops, it causes a great 
deal of trouble. It is almost impossible to get it out of the land. 

RESCUE GRASS. 

{€eratochloa austraJis or Bromus SchraderL) 

It is an annual winter grass. It varies in the time of starting growth. 
I have seen it ready for mowing the first of October and furnish fre- 
quent cuttings till April. Again, it may not start before January, nor 
be ready to cut till February. This depends upon the moisture and 
depression of temperature. When once started, its growth, after the 
successive cuttings or grazings, is very rapid. It is tender, very sweet, 
and stock eat it greedily. It makes also a good hay. It produces an 
immense quantity of leaves. On loose soil some of it may be pulled 
out by animals grazing it. I have seen it bloom as early as November 
when the season had favored it, and no grazing or cutting were permitted. 
Oftener it makes little start before January. But whether late or early 
starting, it may be grazed .or mowed frequently, until April, it still will 
mature S3ed. It has bsiaome naturalized in limited portions of Texas, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and perhaps other States. It is a 
very pretty grass in all its stages ; and especially so when the culms, two 
or three feet high, are gracefully bending with the weight of the diffuse 
panicle with its many pedicelled flattened spikelets, each an inch or 
u'iore long and with twelve to sixteen flowers. 

I would not, however, advise sowing this grass on poor land with 
the expectation of getting a remunerative return. It tillers abundantly 
under favorable conditions. 



Pilchard Frot:<rher''!-i Almanac and Garden Manual 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING, 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louisiana. 
If applied to localities North of here, the time of planting will not be 
quite so early in spring, and earlier in fall. For instance: the direc- 
tions for January will answer for February in the Northern part of 
this State, and Southern part of Mississippi or Arkansas. In autumn, 
directions for September can be followed in August In those sections, 
very little can be planted in November and December. 

JANUARY. 

Sow Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks, the 
early varieties of Eadish, and for the last crop, the Black Spanish. 

Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. Paita Baga may also be sown, 
for table iise later m spring. 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi and early Cauli- 
flower ; the latter best sown in a frame to be transplanted next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Parsley and Celery for cutting, should be sown this 
month. Sow Boquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot-bed has not been prepared already, ma]ie it at once to 
sow Egg Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

All kinds of Herb seed maybe sown during this month. Plant Peas 
for a general crop, towards the end of the month the Extra Early va- 
rieties may be planted. 

Plant Potatoes, but the Early Eose should not be planted before 
the latter end of this month. 

Divide and transplant Shallots. Transplant Cabbage plants sown 
in November. Onions, if not already set out, should be hurried with 
now, so they may have time to bulb. Those who desire to raise Onion 
sets, should sow the seed this month, as they maj' be used for setting- 
out early in the fall, and can be sold sooner than those raised from 
seed. Creole seed is the only kind which can be used to raise sets from. 
Northern seed will not make sets. This I know from experience. 
Asparagus roots should be set out this month. 

Eed Oats can be sown. I consider these and German Millet the 
two best annual forage plants for Louisiana. 

Cucumbers can be planted in the hot-bed ; they are mostly planted 
here during November and December, but if the hot-bed is properly 
made, those planted in this month will bear better than those planted 
in November. 

FEBRUARY. 

All winter vegetables can be sown this month, such as Spinach, 
Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip and Leeks. Also, tlie early varieties 



For the Southern States. 89 



of Eadishes and Si)rin<4- an<l Piirpb^ Top Tnrnip, Swiss Chavd and 
Kohlrabi. 

Sow, for snceession, Lettiu'e, Cabbajj;e and Early Caubilower ; if tlie 
season is favorable, and the month of April not too dry, the latter may 
succeed. 

Cauliflower and Cabbage plants should be transplanted ; Shallots 
divided and set out again. 

Sow Sorrel, Roquette, Chervil, Parsley, Cress and Celery. 

Peas of all kinds can be planted, especially the early varieties. 
The late kinds should be sown in January, but they may be planted 
during this month. 

This is the time to plant the general crop of Potatoes. On an aver- 
age they will succeed better when planted during this, tlmn during any 
other month. 

Herb seeds should be planted ; tender varieties best sown in a frame, 
and transplanted into the open ground afterwards. 

Asparagus roots should be planted ; this is the proper month to sow 
the seed of this vegetable. 

Plants in the hot-bed will require attention ; give air when the sun 
shines, and the weather is pleasant. If too thick, thin out, so they may 
become sturdy. 

Bush Beans can be commenced with this month ; Cucumbers, 
Squash and Melons may be tried, as they often succeed ; if protected hy 
small boxes, as most gardeners protect them, there is no risk at all. 

Corn can be planted towards the end of this month. For market, 
the Adams Extra Early and Early White Elint are planted. . I recom- 
mend the Sugar varieties for family use ; they are just as large as those 
mentioned, and Stowel's Evergreen is as large as any variety grown. 

Mangel Wurtzel and Sugar Beet should be sown in this month for 
stock. Sweet Potatoes can be put in a bed for sprouting, so as to have 
early slips. 

. MARCH. 

Sow Beets, Radish, Cabbage, early varieties; Kohlrabi, Lettuce, 
.Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Swiss Chard and Leek. 

Also, Celery for cutting, Parsley, Roquette, Cress and Chervil. The 
latter part of the month sow Endive. Of Lettuce, the Royal Cabbage 
and Perpignan ; the ^Yhite Coss is a favorite variety for spring ; the 
Butterhead will run into seed too quickly, and should not be sown later 
than the middle of February, in this latitude. 

Plant a full supply of Bush and Pole Beans. For Lima Beans bet- 
ter to w^ait till towards the end of the month, as they rot easily when 
the ground is not warm enough, or too wet. 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra can be planted. The remark 
in regard to Lima Beans holds good for Okra. Early varieties of Peas 
may still be planted. 

Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers can be set out in the open 
ground, and seed sown for a later crop. Plant Sweet Corn. 

Potatoes can be planted ; all depends upon the season. Some years 
they do as vrell as those planted during last month. 



90 Richard FroUclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Beans are hard to keep in this climate, and therefore very few are- 
planted for shelling purposes. With a little care, however, they can be 
kept, but they ought not to be planted before the first of August, so 
that they may ripen when the weather gets cooler. When the season 
is favorable leave them out till dry ; gather the pods and expose them a 
few days to the sun. It is best to shell them at once, and after they 
are shelled put them to air and sun again for a few days longer. Sacks 
are better to keep them in than barrels and boxes. The Eed and White 
Kidney are generally the varieties used for drying. Beans raised in 
spring are hard to keep, and if intended for seed they should be put 
up in bottles, or in tin boxes, and a little camphor sprinkled between 
them. 

Sweet Potatoes should be planted. 

APRIL. 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, Sweet Corn, Cucumbers, Squash, 
Melons and Okra. 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Radish, Lettuce, Mustard, Endive, 
Roquette, Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery for cutting. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plant and Pepper for succession. It is rather 
late to sow Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the early varieties only can 
be successfully used. Kohlrabi can still be sowm, but it is best to sow 
it thinly in drills a foot apart, and thin oat to four inches in the 
rows. • 

Towards the end of this month a sowing of the late Italian Giant 
Cauliflower can be made. It is very large, and takes from eight to 
nine months before it matures, so it has to be sown early. It is always 
best to make a couple of sowings, so that in case one should fail the 
other may be used. This variety is hardier than the French and Ger- 
man kinds, A good plan is to sow the seed in boxes, elevated two feet 
or more above the ground, as it will keep the cabbage-fly off. The 
plants should be overlooked daily, and all green cabbage worms or 
other vermin removed. 

Sweet Potato Slips, for early crop, can be planted out. Early Irish 
Potatoes will be fit to dig now, and the ground they are taken out of 
may be planted with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

Sow Pumpkins of both kinds, the Field and the Cashaw. 

German Millet should be sown this month. The ground ought to 
be well plowed and harrowed. Three pecks of seed is the quantum to 
be sown per acre. It will be well to roll the ground after sowing, and 
the seed will require no other covering. If no roller is handy, some 
brush tied together ought to be passed over the ground sown. For hay, 
it should be cut when in flower. Every planter should give it a trial. 

MAY. 

Very few varieties of vegetables can be sown during this month. 
Many of the winter varieties wilLnot do well if sown now. The grounds 
should now be occupied with growing crops. 

Where Potatoes and Onions are taken up, Corn, Melons, Cucumbers, 
Squash and Pumpkins may be planted. 



For tJie Southern States. 91 



Nothing of the Cabbage kind, except the Creole Cabbage seed, can 
be sown tliis month. It is siipposoJ to stand the heat better than the 
other varieties, but it makes only loose heads, and runs up to seed as 
early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white summer Radish and Endive should l)e sown. 
Lettuce requires much water during hot weather, and, if neglected, will 
become hard and tasteless. The Perpignan is the best kind for sum- 
mer use. Okra can still be sown. 

The first sowing of White Solid Celery is to be made this month. 
The seed requires to be shaded, and, if the weather is dry, should be 
regularly watered. Late Italian Cauliflower should be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the corn, orthecrowdersin rows ; 
the latter are the best to be used green. If they are sown for fertiliz- 
ing purposes, they are sown one bushel per acre, and plowed under 
when the ground is well covered; or sometimes they are left till fall, 
when they commence to decay, and then plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, taking advantage of an occasional 
rain ; if it does not rain they have to be watered. The tops of Shallots 
will commence to get dry; this indicates that they are fit to take up. 
Pull them up and expose to the sun for a few days, and then store them 
away in a dry, airy place, taking care not to lay them too thick, as they 
are liable to heat. Lima and Pole Beans can be planted ; the Southern 
Prolific is the best variety for late x:>lanting. 

JUNE. 

This month is similar to the last, that is, not a great deal can be 
sown. The growing crops will require attention, as weeds grow fast. 
Plant Corn for the last supply of roasting ears. A few Water and Musk 
Melons may be planted. Cucumbers, Squash and Pumpkins planted 
this month generally do very w^ell, but the first requires an abundance 
of water if the weather is dry. 

Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be planted during this month. 
Continue to set out Sweet Potato Vines, 

Sow Yellow and White Summer Radish ; sow Endive for Salad ; this 
is raised more easily than the Lettuce. 

Lettuce can be sown, but it requires more care than most people 
are willing to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an hour in water, take 
them out and put them in a piece of cloth and place in a cool spot- un- 
der the cistern, or, if convenient, in an ice box. Keep the cloth moist, 
and in two or three days the seeds will sprout. Then sow them ; best 
to do so in the evening, and give a watering. 

If the seed is sown without being sprouted, ants will bo likely to 
carry it away before.it can germinate, and the seedsman be blamed for 
selling seed that did not grow. This sprouting has to be done from 
May to September, depending upon the weather. Should the weather 
be moist and cool in the fall, it can be dispensed with. Some sow late 
Cabbage for winter crop in this month, saying that the plants are easier 
raised during this than the two following months. I consider this 
month too soon ; plants will become too hard and long-legged before 
they can be planted out. 



92 Rlclicird Frotscher's Almanac and Gardeii Manual 



This is the last month to sow the Late Italian Cauliflower ; towards 
the end the Earl 3^ Italian Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Some culti- 
vators transplant them, when large enough, at once into the open 
ground; others plant them first into flowerpots and transplant them 
into the ground later. If transplanted at this time, they will require 
to be shaded for a few days, till they commence to grow. 

Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the latter part of this month. 



JULY. 



Plant Pole Beans ; also. Bush Beans, towards the end of the month. 
Sow Tomatoes in the early part for the last crop. Some Corn for roast- 
ing ears may still be planted. Cucumbers can be planted for pickling. 
Early Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Sow Endive, Lettuce, Yellow 
and White Summer Eadish. Where the ground is new, some Turnips 
and Euta Bagas can be sown. Cabbage should be commenced with 
after the 15th of this month; Superior Flat Dutch, Improved Drum- 
head, St. Denis, or Bonneuil and Brunswick are the leading kinds. 
It is hard to say which is the best time to sow, as our seasons differ so 
much— some seasons we get frost early, other seasons not before Jan- 
uary. Cabbage is most easil^^ hurt by frost when it is half grown; 
when the plants are small, or when the}* are headed up, frost does not 
hurt much. It is always good to make two or three sowings. As a 
general thing, plants raised from July and August sown seeds give the 
most satisfaction ; they are almost certain to head, September, in my 
experience, is the most ticklish month ; as the seed sown in that month 
is generally only half grown when we have some frosts, and, therefore, 
more liable to be hurt. But there are exceptions. Some years ago the 
seed sown in September turned out best. Seed sown at the end of 
October and during November generalh" give good results. November 
is the proper month to sow for shipping. The surest waj' to sow is in 
a cold frame, to protect the plants from frosts which sometimes occur 
in December and January. January, and the early part of February, is 
early enough to set out. Brunswick and Excelsior are the earliest of 
the large growing kinds, and it should be sown in July and August, so 
that it may be headed up when the cold comes, as it is more tender 
than the Flat Dutch and Drumhead. The same may be said in regard 
to the St. Denis. All cabbages require strong, good soil ; but these two 
varieties particularly. Brunswick makes also a very good spring cab- 
bage when sown at the end of October. The standard varieties, the 
Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drumhead, should be sown at the 
end of this month and during next. It is better to sow plenty of seeds 
than to be short of plants. I would prefer one hundred plants raised 
in July and August, to four times that amount raised in September. ^It 
is very hard to protect the young plants from ravages of the fly. 
Strong tobacco water is as good as an^-thing else for this purpose, or 
tobaoco stems cut fine and scattered over the ground will keep them 
off to some extent. As the plants have to be watered, the smell of the 
tobacco will drive the flies away. 



For the Southern States. 93 



AUGUST. 

This is a very active month for gardening in the South. Plant 
Bush Beans, Extra Early and Washington Peas. Sow late Cabbages 
and Drumhead Savoy, also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and Kale. The 
Early Italian Giant Cauliflower may still be sown ; but now is the 
proper time to sow the Half Early Paris, Asiatic and other early varie- 
ties. 

Sow Parsley, Koquette, Chervil, Lettuce, Endive and Sorrel ; 
but, in case of dry weather, these seeds will have to be watered fre- 
quently. 

Continue to sow Yellow Turnip Kadishes, and commence to sow red 
varieties, such as Scarlet Turnip, Half Long French and Long Scarlet. 

Towards the end of the month the Black Spanish Radish can be 
sovv'n ; also, Swiss Chard. 

Sow Mustard and Cress ; the former will generally do well. All 
kinds of Turnips and Euta Bagas should be sown ; also, Kohlrabi. 

The seed of all kinds of Beets should be put in the ground. 

Towards the end of the month Carrots can be sown ; but the sowing 
of all vegetables at this time of the year depends much upon the sea- 
son. If we should have hot and dry weather, it is useless to do much, 
as seed cannot come up without being watered. White Solid Celery 
should be sown for a succession, and the Dv/arf kinds for spring use. 

Shallots can be set out during this month ; also, Onion Sets, especi- 
ally if they are raised from Creole seed. The early part of the month 
is the proper time to plant Bed and White Kidney Beans, for shelling 
and drying for winter use. 

Early Rose and other varieties of Potatoes should be planted early 
this month for a winter crop, and the latest of Tomato plants should 
be set out, if not done last month. If Celery plants are set out during 
this month, they require to be shaded. 

SEPTEMBER. 

Most of the seeds recommended for last month can be sown this 
month, and some more added. 

In the early part. Bush Beans can be planted, as they will bear be- 
fore frost comes. Plant Extra Early and early varieties of Peas. Sow 
Radishes of all kinds, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify, Roquette, Cher- 
vil, Parsley, Sorrel, Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Leek, Turnips, Kohlrabi, 
Broccoli, Early Cauliflower, Kale, Celery, Corn Salad and Mustard. 

After the 15th of this month, Creole Onion seed can be sown. This 
is an important crop, and should not be neglected. If it is very dry, 
cover the bed, after the seed has been sown, with green moss; it will 
keep the ground moist, and the seed will come up more regularly; 
The moss has to be taken, off as the young plants make their appear- 
ance. 

Celery plants ]uay be set out in ditches prepared for that purpose. 
Cauliflower and Cabbage plants can be transplanted if the weather is 
favorable. 



91 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



If the weather is not too hot and dry, Spinach should be sown ; but 
it is useless to do so if the weather is not suitable. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much better to sow in August and 
transplant during this month. 

Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be divided and replanted. . 

Sow Turnip-rooted Celery. 

OCTOBER. 

Artichokes should be dressed, the suckers or sprouts taken off, and 
new plantings made. 

Onion seed can still be sown : but it is better to get the seed into 
the ground as soon as possible, so the plants get to be some size before 
the cold weather comes. 

Towards the end of the month Black Eye Marrowfat Peas can be 
planted ; also, English or Windsor Beans. 

Sow Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Kale, Spi- 
nach, Mustard, Swiss Chard, Carrots, Beets, Salsify, Leek, Corn Salad, 
Parsley, Eoquette, Chervil. Kohlrabi, Radish, Lettuce, Endive and 
Parsnip. Shallots from the first planting can be divided and set out 
again. Salsify does very finely here, but is generally sown too late; 
this is the proper month to sow the seed. The ground should be 
mellow and have been manured last spring. It should be spaded up 
very deeply, as the size and smoothness of the roots depend upon the 
preparation of the soil. 

Water the Celery with soap suds, and if the season has been favor- 
able by the end of this montli, some may be earthed up. 

Sow Eye, Barley and Eed Oats, Orchard Grass, Eed and White 
Clover, and Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants should be transplanted ; 
they cannot be left in the same spot for three or four years, as is done 
North, The Wilson's Albany, and Longworth's Prolific, are the favorite 
varieties for the market. 

The Wilson's Albany do not make many runners here, but they 
form a stool, something like the plants of violets, and these stools 
have to be taken up and divided. 

NOVEMBER. 

Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, Radish, Lettuce, Mustard, 
Roquette, Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnips, Cress and En- 
dive, also Turnips and Cabbage. Superior Elat Dutch and Improved 
Drumhead, sown in this month, make fine Cabbage in the spring. 

Artichoke should be dressed, if not already done last month. 

Sow Black Eye and other late varieties of Peas. Frost does not 
hurt them as long as they are small, and during thi? time of the ye^r 
they will grow, but very slowly. English Beans can be planted ; frost 
does not hurt them, and, if not planted soon, they will not bear much. 

Manure for hot-beds should be looked after, and ought not to be 
over one month old. It should be thrown together in a heap, and, 
when heated, forked over again, so the long and short manure will be 
well mixed. The first vegetables generally sown in the hot-beds are 



For the Southern Statea. 95 



Cucumbers ; it is best to start them in two or three inch pots, and when 
they have two rougli leaves, transplant them to their place ; two good 
plants are sufficient under every sash. 

DECEMBER. 

Not a great deal is planted during this month, as the ground is 
generally occupied by the growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop ; some Potatoes may be risked, but 
it is uncertain whether they will succeed or not. 

Sow Spinach, Roquette, Radish, Carrots, Lettuce, Endive and Cab- 
bage. 

Early varieties of Cauliflower can be sown in a frame or sheltered 
situation, to be transplanted in February into the open ground. Early 
Cabbages, such as York, Oxheart and Winningstadt, may be sown. 

To those who wish to force Tomatoes, I will say that this is the 
month to sow them. The best kind for that purpose is the Extra Early 
Dwarf Red. It is really a good acquisition ; it is very dwarfish, very 
productive, and of good size, and bears the fruit in clusters. 



Eichaixl FroLsdter's Almanac and GarOen Manual 



PLANTERS' AND GAEDENERS' PRICE LIST, 



Cost of flailing Seeds. Orders for ounces and ten cent papers are 
mailed free of postage, except Beans, Peas and Corn. See page 4 in 
regard to seeds b3^ mail. On orders by the pound and quart an ad- 
vance of sixteen cents per pound and thirty ceait§ per Quart Biiiist 
be added to qiiotatious for i?o§tage. 

Artichoke. per 02. per It). 

Large Green Globe sO 50 ^6 00 

Eearly Campania 50 6 00 

Asparag^iis. 

Large Purple Top 10 1 00 

BeaQ§, (DwAEF, Snap ok Bush). per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Sis Weeks or NewiDgton Wonder SO 20 SO 60 

Eaii}' Eed Speckled Valentine 20 . 60 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks 20 J 60 

Early Yellow Six Weeks. ] 20 3 60 

Dwarf German Wax (stringless) ... 20 % 60 

White Kidney 20 ^ 50 

Bed Speckled French 20 | 60 

Early China Red Eye 20 J 60 

Red Kidney 20 i 50 

Dwarf Golden Wax 25 "^ 80 

Best of All 40 | 1 25 

Improved Valentine 25 ^ 75 

Beans, (Pole ok Running). g 

Large Lima .... 40 "5 1 50 

Caroline or Sewee 40 2 1 50 

Horticultural or Vrren's Egg 40 ^ 1 25 

Dutch Case Knife 40 g 1 25 

German Wax (stringless) 40 ^ 1 50 

Southern Prolific 40 '^ 1 50 

Crease Back 40 1 50 

Beail§, (English). 

Broad Windsor 25 75 

Beet. per 02. per ft). 

Extra Early or Bassano . . SO 10 $0 60 

Simon's Early Red Turnip 10 60 

Early Blood Turnip 10 60 

Long Blood 10 50 

Half Long Blood 10 60 

Egj'ptiau Eed Turnip 10 60 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel 10 40 

White French or Sugar 10 - 40 

Silver or Swiss Chard . ' 10 75 

Borecole or Curled Kale. 

Dwaif German Greens 15 1 00 

Broccoli. Purple Cape 30 4 00 

Brussels Sprouts 30 4 00 



For the Southern Slatet^. 97 



Cabbag'C. per. oz. pei- fb. 

Early York $0 25 $2 00 

Early Large York 25 2 00 

Early Sugar Loaf 25 2 50 

Early Large Oxheart 25 2 50 

Early WinningstacU 25 2 50 

Jersey Wakefield 30 -i 00 

Early Fiat Dutch 25 2 50 

Large flat Brunswick . . 25 3 00 

Improved Large Late Drumhead 25 3 00 

Superior Large Late Flat Dutch 30 i 00 

improved Early Summer 25 3 00 

Red Dutch (for pickling) 30 4 00 

Green Globe Savoy 25 2 00 

Early Dwarf t^avoy 25 2 00 

Drumhead Savoy 30 2 50 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil ..... 25 2 50 

Excelsior 25 3 00 

CaiililIower» 

Extra Early Paris . . 75 10 00 

Half Early Paris 75 10 00 

Large Asiatic 75 10 00 

Early Erfurt 75 10 00 

• Le Normand's Short Stemmed .... 75 10 00 

Early Italian Giant 1 00 12 00 

Imperial 1 00 12 00 

Late ItaHaa Giant 1 00 12 00 

Algiers (fine ) 75 10 00 

Carrots. 

Early Scarlet Horn 10 1 00 

Half Long Scarlet French 10 1 00 

Half Long Luc ... 10 1 00 

Improved Long Orange . . 10 80 

Long Red, without core 10 1 00 

St. Valerie 10 1 00 

Danver's Intermediate 10 1 00 

Celery. 

Large White Solid (finest American) 30 4 00 

Large Ribbed Dwarf . . 25 3 00 

Turnip-Rooted 30 4 00 

Cutting 15 2 00 

Chervil. 

Plain leaved .... 20 2 00 

Collards . 20 2 00 

Corn Salad 15 1 50 

Corn. ' pel' quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar .... $0 25 $0 60 

Adams' Extra Early 20 50 

Early Sugar or Sweet 20 60 

Stowell's Evergreen Sugar 20 60 

Golden Beauty 15 50 

Champion White Pearl 15 50 



perg 


al. 


SO 


50 





50 





50 





50 





50 


per 


fl). 


SI 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


50 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



9S Blchard Frot^chers Almanac and Garden ^lanual 



Corn,— Continued. per quart. 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed $0 15 

Early Yellow Canada 15 

Large White Flint 15 

Blunt's Prolific, Field (new) 15 

Improved Learning 15 

Cress. per oz. 

Curled or Pepper Grass SO 10 

Broad-leaved 15 

Cuciimberr 

Improved Early White Spine 10 

Early Frame 10 

Long Green Turkey 15 

Early Cluster 10 

Gherkin or Burr (for pickling) , ... 20 

Long Green White Spine 20 

f^g^plant. 

Large Purple or New Orleans Market 50 6 00 

Endive. 

Green Curled 

Extra Fine Curled , 

Broad-leaved or Escarolle 

Koblrabi. 

Early White Vienna 

LieeJi. 

Large London Flag 

Lai'ge Carentau , 

Lettuce. 

Early Cabbage or White Butter 

Improved Eoy al Cabbage . . 20 

Brown Dutch 

Drumhead Cabbage 

White Paris Coss 

' Perpignan , 

Improved Large Passion 20 

:iEelon, ITIusk or Canteloupe. 

Netted Nutmeg 

Netted Citron . 

Pine Apple . . 

EiU'ly \\ hite Japan 

Persian or Cassaba . 

New Orleans Market 

Melon, 1^ ater. 

Mountain Sweet ... 

Mountain Sprout 

Improved Gipsey 

Ice Cream i white seeded) 

Orange 

Battle Snake (true) 15 

Cuban Queen 

Pride of Georgia 

Mammoth Iron-Clad 



20 


2 


00 ' 


20 


2 


50 


20 





50 


25 


? 


00 


25 


2 


50 


30 


4 00 


20 


2 


00 


20 


2 


50 


25 


2 


50 


15 


2 


00 


20 


3 00 


25 


3 


00 


20 


2 


50 


10 


1 


00 


10 


1 


00 


10 


1 


00 


10 


1 


25 


l.> 


1 


25 


20 


2 


00 


10 


1 


00 


10 


1 


00 


15 


1 


25 


15 


1 


^25 


20 


2 


00 


15 


1 


50 


15 


1 


50 


15 


2 


00 


15 


1 


50 



For the Southern States. 99 



Mustard. per oz. per Hb. 

White or Yellow Seeded $0 10 $0 10 

Large-leaved 10 1 00 

Nasturtium. 

Tall 25 3 00 

Dwarf 30 4 00 

Okra. 

Greea Tall Growing . . 10 GO 

Dwarf White 10 75 

Onion. 

Yf :iow Dutch or Strassburg 25 3 00 

Large Red Wethersfield 25 3 00 

White or Silver Skin , 25 4 00 

Creole ' 25 3 00 

Italian Onion. 

New Queen 30 1 00 

Shallots. Market pi ice. 

Parsley. 

Plain-leaved 10 75 

Double Curled \ 10 1 00 

Improved Garnishing . . ... 15 1 50 

Parsnip. 

Hollow Crown or Sugar 10 75 

Peas. per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early (first and best) , $0 25 g ^ $0 75 

Tom Thumb - 25 '^ " 75 

Early Washington 20 -^ 60 

Laxton's Alpha 30 £ 1 00 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod 20 S 60 

Champion of England 30 ^ 1 00 

McLean's Advancer 30 > 1 20 

McLean's Little Gem ... 30 ^ 1 00 

Laxton's Prolific Long Pod 30 J 1 00 

Eugenie 30 t 100 

Dwarf Blue Imperial 25 i 1 00 

Royal Dwarf Marrow 20 ^ 60 

Black Eyed Marrowfat 15 ^ 50 

Large White Marrowfat 20 "f 50 

Dwarf Sugar 50 =§ 2 00 

Tall Sugar 50 | 2 00 

American Wonder -10 ^ 1 50 

Field or Cow Peas Market price. 

Pepper. per oz. per lb. 

Bell or Bull Nose $0 40 $4 00 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 40 5 00 

Long Red Cayenne 40 4 00 

Red Cherry 40 4 00 

Golden Dawn Mango (new) 40 5 00 

Bird Eye 50 

Tabasco 50 

Ruby King 40 5 00 



100 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Potatoes. 

Early Rose >, 

Breese's Peerless i Prices vary accord- 
Russets I ing to market. 

Extra Early Vermont I Quotations will be 

Snowflake i given on applica- 

Beauty of Hebron | tion. 

"White Elephant , / 

Potatoes, Sweet. 

Yam ." ) Prices vary according to market. Quota- 
Shanghai or California Yam . . C tions will be given on application. 

Pumpkin. per quart. per gal. 

Kentucky Field $0 25 SI 00 

per oz. per lb. 

Large Cheese $0 10 . $0 75 i 

Cashaw Crook-Neck , 10 1 00 

Radish. 

Early Long Scarlet 10 60 

Early Scarlet Turnip 10 60 

Yellow Summer Turnip 10 80 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped , 10 60 

White Summer Turnip 10 80 

Scarlet Half Long French 10 60 

Scarlet Olive-shaped White-tipped or French breakfast 10 60 

Black Spanish (winter) 10 1 00 ' 

Chinese Rose (winter) 10 1 00 

Roquette 20 2 50 

Salsify (American) 20 2 00 

Spinach. 

Extra Large-leaved Savoy 10 40 

Broad-leaved Flanders 10 iO 

Squash. 

Early Bush or Patty Pan 15 100 

Long Greea or Summer Crook-Neck 15 1 00 

London Vegetable Marrow '. 20 2 00 

The Hubbard 15 1 25 

Boston Marrow 15 1 50 

Tomato. 

Extra Enrly Dwarf Red , 30 4 00 

Early Large Smooth Red 20 2 00 

Tilden 25 2 50 

Trophy (selected) 40 4 CO 

Large Yellow 30 4-^)0 

Acme 25 3 00 

Paragon 25 3 00 

Livingston's Perfection 25 3 00 

LiviDgston's Favorite 2o 3 CO 



For the Southern States. 101 



Turnip* per 02. per lb' 

Early Ked or Purple Top (strap-leaved) $0 10 SO 50 

Early White Flat Dutch (strap-leaved) 10 50 

Large White Globe 10 50 

White Spring 10 50 

Yellow Aberdeen 10 50 

Golden Ball 10 50 

Purple Top Euta Baga 10 50 

Munich, Early Purple Top 10 GO 

Extra Early Purple Top 10 50 

Purple Top Globe 10 50 

Improved Ruta Baga . . : 10 Q 50 

^Weei and Medicinal Herbs. per package. 

Anise lOc 

Balm 10 

Basil 10 

Bene 10 

Borage 10 

Caraway 10 

Dill 10 

Fennel 10 

Lavender 10 

Majoram 10 

Pot Marigold 10 

Rosemary . . 10 

Rue 10 

Sage 10 

Summer Savory 10 

Thyme 10 

Wormwood 10 

Orass and Field Seeds. 

Red Clover 

White Dutch Clo%^er \ 

Alsike Clover \ 

Alfalfa or French Lucerne 

Kentucky Blue Grass . . 

Rescue Grass 

Hungarian Grass 

German Millet 

Red Top Grass 

Rye , 

Barley .... 

Red or Rust Proof Oats 

Sorghum , 

English Rye Grass 

Broom Corn 

Buckwheat 

Johnson Grass 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass 

Meadow Fescue I 

Russian Sunflower j 

Orchard Grass ' 

Prices of larger quantities of seed will be given on application. Peas and 
Beans are very low, if ordered by the bushel. 



102 R[':]inr>l Fr''>t.<c]"^r''y Abnaito.'.- o.n'^ Garden Mo.) 



FLOWER SEEDS, 



The tollowiDg list of Flower seeds is not very large, but it contaiDS 
all which is desirable and which will do well in the Southern climate. 
I import them from one of the most celebrated groweis in Pnissia, 
and they are of the best quality. There are ver\- few or no flower 
seeds raised in this country, and Northern houses, which publish 
large lists and catalogues, get them from just the same sources as 
myself ; but they, on an average, sell much higher than I do. Some 
varieties which are bi-ennial in Europe or Xorth, flower here the first 
season ; in fact, if they do not, they geueraily do not flower at all, as 
they usually are destroyed by the continued long heat of summer. 
Some kinds grow quicker here and come to a greater perfection than 
in a more Northern latitude. 

Flower seeds require a little more care in sowing than vegetable 
seeds. The ground should be well pulverized and light enough not to 
bake after a rain. Some of the more delicate and finer varieties are 
better sown in boxes or seed pans, where they can be better handled 
and protected from hard rains or cold weather ; the other kinds do 
not transplant well, and are better sown at once where they are to 
remain, or a few seeds may be sown in small pots to facilitate trans- 
planting into the garden without disturbing the plants,, when large 
enough. Some have ver>- fine seeds, which the mere pressing of the 
hand or spade to the soil will cover : others may be covered one-fourth 
of an inch, according to their size. Watering should be done care- 
fully, and if not done with a s^Tinge, a watering pot. where the holes 
of the spout are very fine, should be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, con- 
sideration should be taken of the height, so that the taller varieties 
may be in the middle and the dwarf kinds on the edge of the bed. 

The seeds are lait up at ten cents a package, fifteen packages for 
one dollar, except a few rare or costly kinds, where the price is noted. 
All flower seeds in packages are mailed free of postage to the pur- 
chaser. Where there is more than one color, I generally import them 
mixed, as I find that most of my customers do not wish to purchase 
six packages, or more, of one variety, in order to get all the colors. 
One par-kage of Astersr Zinnia, Phlox, Chinese Pink. German Stocks, 
Petunia, Portulaca, and others, will always contain an equal mixture 
of the best colors. 



For the Southern Stateii. 



103 



Althea Rosea. Hollyhock. This 
flower has been much improved of late 
years, and is very easily cultivated. Can 
be sown from October till April. Very 
hardy ; from four to six feet high. 

Alyssuni maritimum. Sweet 
Alyssum. Very free flowering plants, 
about siy inches high, with white flowers ; 
very fragrant. Sow from October till 
April. 

Antirhiiium inaju§. Snapdragon. 
Choice mixed. Showy plant of various 
colors. About two feet high. Should be 
sown early, if perfect flowers are desired. 
Sow from October till March. 




Althea Eosc 



Aster. Queen Margaret. German Quilled. Perfect double quilled 
flowers, of all shades, from white to dark purple and crimson. One 
and a half feet high. 





Gt-rman Quilled Aister. 



Trufauf s raeonv-Plowered Aster. 



Aster. Trufaut's Paeony-Flowered Perfection. Large double 
paeony-shaped flowers, of fine mixed colors ; one of the best varieties. 
Tsvo feet high ; sow from December till March. Asters should be sown 
in a box or in pots, and kept in a green-house, or near a window ; when 
large enough, transplant into the border. Talce a shovel of compost 
and mix with the ground before planting. Put three to four plants 
together, and they will show better. They can be' cultivated in pots. 



lOi 



Fik-hard Protschei^' s Almanac and Garden Manual 





Adonis autamnalis. 



Amarantluis caudatus. 



Adonis aiituuiiialis« Flos Adonis 
or Pheasant's E^'e. Showy crimson fiower, 
of long duration. One foot high. Sow from 
November till April. 

Aniamuttius caudatus^ Love Lies 
Bleeding. Long red racemens with blood 
red flowers. Very graceful ; three feet high. 

Amaraiitlius tricolor^ Three colored 
Amaranth. Very showy; cultivated on 
account of its leaves, which are green, 
yellow and red. Two to three feet high. 

Aoiaranthus bicolor. Two colored 
Amaranth. Crimson and green variegated 
foliage ; good for edging. Two feet high. 




Amarknthus tricolor 





Amaranthus Salicifolius, Fountain Plant 



Double Daisy. 



'fFor ihe Southern States. 



ICkG 



Aniarauttiiis Salicifolius. Fountain Plant. Rich colored 
foliage, very graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow from February till 
June. 




Aquilcgia, ov Columbine. 



Ealsamina Camellia-Flowered. 



A<iiiiie^ia. Columbine. A showy and beautiful flower of differ- 
ent colors ; tw^o feet high. Sow from October till March. Should be 
sowm early if flowers are wished : if sown late will not bloom till next 
season. 

Balsaniina Morteaisis, Lady Slipper. A w^ell known flower 
of easy culture. Requires good ground to produce double flowers. 

Balsainiiia. Improved Camellia-flowered. Very double and 
beautiful colors. The strain which I offer of this variety is very fine ; 
but to have them perfect, they should not be sown too soon. In rich 
ground and during dry w^eather they require plenty of water. 

Balsaiiiiiia camellia flora afba. Pure white flowers, used 
for bouquets ; about two feet high. Sow from February till August. 

Bellis PercMiiis. Daisy. Finest double mixed variety; four 
inches high. From October till January. 

Cacalia cocciiiea. Scarlet Tassel Flower. A profuse flowering 
plant, with tassel-shaped flowers in cluster ; one and a half feet. Sow 
from February till May. 



V}6 



FiiCitO.i'd Ff'jtsclier's AJmai'iac and Garden y[anual 









Celosia cristata. Cacal:-: :■:■. 

Caleudnla officinalis. PotMarigold. A plant which, properly 

speaking, belongs to the aromatic herbs, but sometimes cultiTated 
for the flowers, which vary in different shades of yellow : one and a 
half feet. From January till April. 

Celosia cristata. Dwarf Cock^s-comb. Well known class of 
flowers which are very ornamental, producing large heads of crimson 
and yellow flowers ; one to two feet high. Sow from February till 
August. 





Calendula cmdnaiis. 



Cherianilius Cheri. 



Cheriaiithns Cheri. Wall Flower. This flower is highly 

esteemed in some parts of Europe, but does not grow very perfectly 
here, and seldom produces the large spikes of double flowers which 
are very fragrant. Two feet high. November till March. 



For iJie Soiitherii Slates 



107 



€aiiii>aiiiila speciiliim. Bell-Flower, or Venus' looking- 
glass. Free flowering plants of different colors, from white to dark 
blue ; one foot high. Sow from December till Marcli. 





Centaurea cvanuH. 



Ccntaurea suavoloiis. 



Centaiirea cyanns. Bottle Pink. A hardy annual of easy 
culture, of various colors ; two feet high. 

Centaiirea suavolen§. YeUow, Sweet Sultan. December to 
April. 

Cineraria Biyt^ricta. A beautiful green-house plant. Seed 
should be sown in October or November, and they will flov/er in 
spring. Per package, 25 cents. 

Cineraria maritima. A handsome border plant, which is culti- 
vated on account of its silvery w^hite leaves. Stands our summer well. 

Coleiis. A v/ell knowm and beautiful bedding plant, which can 
be easily propagated by seeds which produce different shades of 
colored plants. 

Diantiius Barfoatus. Sweet William. A well knowm plant 
which has been much improved of late years. Their beautiful colors 
make them very showy. Should be sow^n early, otherwise they will 
not flower the first spring ; one and a half feet high. October till April. 





Dianthus barbatus. 



Dianthus chiiiensis, double. 



108 



Pilchard Frotst-Jier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



I>iautlii.i§ Ctiiaiessis. Chinese Pink. A beautiful class of 
annuals of various colors, which flower very profusely in early spring 
and summer; one foot high. From OctoLer riil ApriJ. 

JDiautlitis HedcleT^'igi-ii. Japan Pink. This is the most showy 
of any of the annual pinks. The flowers are very large'and of brilliant 
colors ; one foot high. Sow from October till April. 





Diantlius Heddevd.<: 



DiautbusJCaryopLyiiuo. 



DiaaiJlaiis plumarlSc Border Pink. A fragrant pink used for 
edging. The flowers are tinged, generally pink or white, with a dark 
eye. Does not flower the first year ; tv,'0 feet high. Sow from Janu- 
ary till April. 





Dianthus ricotcc. 



EarlT Dwarf Double Carnation Pink 



For the Southern States. 



109 



Diantlius caryopliyllus. Carnation Pink. Tiiis is a well 
known and highly esteemed class of flowers. They are double, of 
different colors, and very fragrant ; can be sown either in fall or 
spring ; should be shaded during mid-summer and protected from hard 
rains ; three to four feet high. November till April. 

Diantlius Picotee. Finest hybrids. Stage flowers saved from 
a collection of over 500 named varieties ; per package, 50c. 

Diantlius puniila. Early dwarf flowering Carnation Pink. If 
sown early this variety will flower the first season. They are quite 
dwarfish and flower very profusely. November till April. 

Delpliiiiiuni Iniperialis, II. pi. Imperial flowering Larkspur. 
Very handsome variety of symmetrical form. Mixed colors ; bright 
red, dark blue and red stripes ; 1| feet high, 

Delpliinium ajacis. Bocket 
Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very showy ; 
two and a half feet. 

Delpliiiiiuni Chineiisis. Dwarf 
China Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very 
pretty ; one foot high. November till 
April. 

Note. —None of the above three va- 
rieties transplant well, and are better 
sown at once where they are intended 
to remain. 

Dahlia. Large Flowering Dahlia. 
Seed sown in the spring will flower by 
June. Very pretty colors are obtained 
from seed; the semi-double or single 
ones can be pulled up as they bloom ; 
but those seeds which are saved from fine double varieties will pro- 
duce a good per centage of double flowers. 




Belpliiuium Chinensis. 



February till June. 



Eschsctioltzia € alitor iiica. California Poppy. A very free 
flowering plant, good for masses. Does not transplant w^ell. One 
foot high. December till April. 





Gaillardia bicolor. 



riirpU: Globe Ani:u-aiitli 



11. 



Gaillardia bicolor. Two colored Gaillardia. Tery showy 
plants, which continue to flower for a long time. Flowers red, bor- 
dered with orange yellow. One and a half feet high. January till 
April. 

Oillia. Mixed Gillia. Dwarf plants, which flower freely of vari- 
ous coL:t5. One foot. December till April. 

Gouiphreua alba aud purpurea. White and Crimson Bate h- 
elor Button or Orlobe Amaranth. Weil known variety of flowers ; very 
early and free flowering: continue to flower for a long time. Two 
feet high. From Februarv till Ausrust. 




Geranium Zonalt 



Geranium Zonale. Zonale Geranium. Seed saved from large 
flowering varieties of different colors : should be sown in seed pans, 
and when large enough transplanted into pots, where they can be left. 
•r transplanted in spring into the open ground. 

Geraninm pclarg-oniniu. Large flowering Pelargonium. 
Spotted vari-i-ties. 23 c-nts per package. 



For the Southern States. 



lU 




Geranium Pelargonium. 
Oeraiiiuiii odoratissinia. Apple-soented Geranium. Culti- 
vated on account of its fragrant leaves ; 25 cents per package. Both of 
these kinds are pot plants, and require shade during hot weather. 
Should be sown during fall and winter. 




HelichrvsuuTi mouHtrosum album. 



112 



Eichard Frot:^C'ier's Alniana'j ond G-o.rden MaiU'Cil 



A graceful plant with 
One foot hlsh. Froni 



Gypsophila pauiculata. G^psophila. 

white flowers, which can be used for bouciuets. 
December to April. 

Heliotropium. Mixed varieties with dark and light shaded 
flowers. A well known plant, esteemed for the fragrance of its flowers. 
which are produced during the whole summer in grea^" profusion. 
This plant is generally propagated by cuttings, but can also be raised 
from seed. Should be sown in a hot-bed if sown early. 

Heliclirysuin luoustiosuui album. TS'hite Everlasting 
Flower. Tery showy double flowers, One and a half feet high. 

Heliclir J sum monstrosuin rubrum. Eed Everlasting 
Flower. Very ornamental. One and a half feet high. December till 
April. Does not transplant well. 

Heliautlius fl. pi. Double Flowering Sunflower. A well known 
plant, with show^- yellow flowers. The double is often cultivated in 
the flower garden. The single varieties are cultivated mostly for the 
seed. They are said to be anti-malarious. Four feet high. February 
till May. 

Iberi§ aiiiara. White Candytuft. A well known plant raised a 
good deal by florists for bouquets. Can be sown at different times to 
have a succession of flowers. One foot high. 

Iberi§ umbelata ro§ea. Purple Candytuft. One foot. Octo- 
ber till April. 

Liuum grandifloium rnbiuni. F^carlet Flax, A very pretty 
plant for masses or borders, with bright scarlet flowers, dark in the 
centre. One foot. January till April. 








>s?^s^= 




Mathiola annua. 



Lobelia erinus. 
Lobelia eriuus. Lobelia. A very graceful plant with white 

and blue flowers, well adapted for hanging baskets or border. Half 
fnot. October till March. 



For the Southern States. 



113 



L.ycliiiis clialccdoiiica. Lychnis. 
Nice plants with scarlet, white and rose 
flowers. Two feet. December till April. 

Liupiiius. Lupiniis. Plants with 
spikes of flowers of various colors. Should 
be sown soon. Does not transplant well. 
Two feet. December till March. 

Matliiola annua. Ten Weeks Stocks. 
This is one of the finest annuals in cultiva- 
tion. Large flowers of all colors, from white 
to dark blue or crimson. Should be sown in 
pots or pans, and when large enough trans- 
planted into rich soil. One and a quarter 
feet. October till March. 

I?Ie$enibi'yantheinuan erystalli- 
num. Ice Plant. Neat plant with icy 




Lychnis ohalcecloniea. 



It is of spreading habit. Good for baskets or beds. 
One foot. February till March. 

MiniuUis tigrinus. Monkey flower. Showy flowers of yellow 
and brown. Should be sown in a shady place. Does not transplant 
well. Half foot. December till March. 





Ice Plant. Double Matricaria. 

Matricaria capensis. Double Matricaria. White double 
flowers, resembling the Daisy, but smaller ; are fine for bouquets ; 
blooms very nearly the whole summer. Two feet. December till 
March. 

Mimosa pudica. Sensitive Plant. A curious and interesting 
plant vfhich folds up its leaves when touched. One foot. February 
tillJune. 

Mirabilis jalapa. Marvel of Peru. A well know^n plant of 
easy culture; producing flowers of various colors. It forms a root 
which can be preserved from one year to another. February tillJune. 
Three feet. 

Myosotis palustris. Forget-me-not. A fine little plant with 
small, blue, star-like flowers. Should have a moist, shady situation. 
Does hot succeed so well here as in Europe, of which it is a native. 
Half foot high. December till 3Iarch. 
8 



11^ 



Eichard D^otscher's Almanac and Garden Man 



.J a: 




fe^^&As' 



fs 




ri7;e GiTive Lovc 



Petania hvbricLa. 



>eniopbiIa Iu§ignis. Blue Grore Love. Plants of easv culture, 
very pretty and profuse bloomers. Brisrht blue with wMi^'e centre 
One foot hi^h. 







*r^ -»=*-* i'^"' =• 







Fapaver ranunotdas flowered. 



1 







(Encrbera Laziarckiana. 

Aemophila maculata. 

Large vrhite flowers spotted with 
violet. One foot high. December 
till April. 

Xigella daniascena. 

Love in a Mist. Plants of easy 
culture, with light blue fiowers. 
J)oe5 not transplant well. One 
foot high. December till April. 

^Tierembergia sracili^* 
Xierembergia. Xice plants wirh 
delicate foliage, and white flow- 
ers tinted with lilac. One foot 
high. November till April. 

CEiiothera Laniarckia- 
ua. Evening Primrose. Showy, 
large yellow flowers. December 
till Aoril. Two feet hit?h. 



For the Southern States. 



115 



Papaver Soiniiifcrtiui. Double flowering Poppy. Of different 
colors ; very showy. 

Papaver raiiuiic»lus floM^ered. Double, fringed flowers; 
very showy. Cannot be transplanted. Two feet high. October till | 
March. - 





Petunia Hvbrida, double. 



Portiilaca. 




Phlox Drunmiond'i gvandiflori 



116 



Elchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



PetiiJiia liybrida. Petunia. Splendid mixed hybrid varieties. 
A very decorative plant of various colors, well linown to almost every 
lover of flowers. Plants are of spreading habit, about one foot high. 
January till May. 

PctuBiia Jlora pleno. Large double flowering varieties. They 
are hybridized with the finest strains, and will give from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of double flowers. Yery handsome ; 25 cents per package. Janu- 
ary till March. 

Phlox Di'mniiiOBKlii. Drummond's Phlox. One of the best and 
most popular Annuals in cultivation. Their various colors and length 
of flowering, with easy culture, make them favorites with every one. 
All fine colors mixed. One foot high. December till April. 

PIilox Driiiiiinoiidii g^raiidiflora. This is an improvement 
on the above ; flowers are larger, with white centre, Idifferent colors. 
Very beautiful. One foot high. December till April. 

PortHlaca. A small 
plant of great beauty, and 
of the easiest culture. Does 
best in a well exposed situa-. 
tion, where it has plenty of 
sun. The flowers are of 
various colors, from white 
to bright scarlet and crim- 
son. The plant is good for 
edging vases or pots; or 
where large plants are kept 
in tubs, the surface can be 
filled with this neat little 
genus of plants. Half foot 
high. February till August. 
Portiilaca ^randi^- 
flora fl. pi. Double Portu- 
laca. The same variety of 
colors with semi-double and 
double flowers. Half foot 
high, February till August. 
Double FoTtulaea. 






Pnmiila veris. 



Scabiosa nana. 



For the Southern States. 



117 



Primula verss. Polyanthus. An herbaceous plant oj! various 
colors, highly esteemed in Europe. Half foot high. December till 
April. 

Primula cliiueaii^is. Chinese Primrose. A green-house plant, 
which flowers profusely and continues to bloom for a long time ; 
should be sown early to insure the plant flowering well. Different 
colors; mixed, per package, 25 cents. One and a half feet high. Oc- 
tober till February. 

Pyrethrum aurea. Golden 
Feather. The flowers resemble Asters. 
It has bright yellow leaves which make 
it very showy as a border if massed with 
plants, such as coleus, etc. 

Reseda odorata. Sweet Migno- 
nette. A fragrant plant and a favorite 
with everybody. One foot high. 

Reseda g-raudiflora. Similar to 
the above plant and flower, spikes lar- 
ger. Fifteen inches. Deaember till 
April. 

Soabiosa nana. Dwarf Mourn- 
ing Bride. Plants of double flowers of 
various colors. One foot high. Decem- 
ber till April. 




Eeseda odoratn. 



Saponaria calabrica. Soapwort. A very free flowering an- 
nual, of easy culture, resembling somewhat in leaves the Svv^eet 
William. One and a half feet high. December till April. 

Salvia eoccinea splendens. Scarlet Salvia or Pied Flower- 
ing Sage, xl pot or green-house plant, but w^hich can be grown as an 
annual, as it flowers freely from seed the first year. Two to three feet 
high. February till April. 

§ilene Arnieria. Lobel's Catchfly. A free blooming plant of 
easy culture ; flowers almost anywhere. Eed and white. One and a 
half feet high. 





Tacretes Erecta. 



Tagetos Patula. 



118 



Bidiard Frotsclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Tagetes crecta. African or Tall-growing Marigold. Very 
showy annuals for boixlers, with bright yellow flowers growing upright. 
One and a half feet high. 

Tagetes patiala. French or Dwarf Marigold. A very comimct 
dwarf growing variety, covered with 3^ellow and brown flowers. One 
and a half feet high. January till April. - 

Torcnia Foiirnieri. 
A plant from Mexico of 
recent introduction, but 
which has become very 
popular in a short time. 
It stands the heat well, is 
well adapted to pot cul- 
ture, and makes one of the 
most valuable bedding 
plants v/e have. The flow- 
ers are of a sky blue color, 
v>^ith tiiree spots of dark 
blue. The seeds are very 
line and take a good while 
to germinate. It trans- 
plants very easily. 

Terfecoa liybricla. 
Hybridized Yerbena. . A 
well known and favorite 
flower for borders. Their 
long flowering and great 
diversity of color make 
them valuable for every 
garden, however small. 
All colors mixed. One 
and a half feet high. 
January till April. * 

Verlseasa Striped 
f falsa n. These are beaa- 
iilul stri|:ed kinds of all 
volors with large eyes, 

Terljesia Niveni^ 
White Verbena. Pure 
white Verbena of more 
or less fragrance. One 
and a half feet high. 
January till April. 



Toreiiia rournieri 





Choicest Larare Ensrlish Pau8V. 



Yiaca rosea and alba. 



For the Southern States. 



^m 



119 



Tinea rosea and alba. Red and 

"White Periwinkle. Plants of shining? 
foliage, with white and dark rose colored 
flowers, which are produced the whole 
summer and autumn. Two feet high. 
February till April. 

Tiola odorata. Swex^t Violet. 
Well known edging plant, which genei"- 
ally is propagated by dividing the plants ; 
but can also be raised from seed. Half 
foot high. Sow from January till March. 




Hybridized A^'erbcna. 




anoouiuao 



120 



Elchard Froti<c]te]-'s Almanac and Garden Manual 




Striped Italian Verbena. 



Viola tricolor maxi- 
ma. Large flowering 
choicest Pansy. This is one 
of the finest little plants in 
cultivation, for pots or the 
open ground. They are of 
endless colors and mark- 
ings. When planted in the 
garden, they will show bet- 
ter if planted in masses, and 
a little elevated above the 
level of the garden. Half 
foot high, October until 
March. 

Zinnia elegant fl. pi. 
Double Zinnia. Plants of 
very easy culture, flowering 
very profusely through the 
whole summer and fall ; 
producing double flowers of 
all colors, almost as large 
as the flower of a Dahlia. 
Three feet high. February 
till August. 



CLIMBING PLANTS. 





Balloon Vine. Cliaibiug Cubnea. 

Cariliospermaini. Balloon Vine. A quick-growing climber, 
the seeds of which are in a pod shaped like a miniature balloon, there- 
fore the name. 



Beniuca§a cerifera. Wax Gourd. A strong growing vine i 
with long shaped dark crimson fruit, which looks very ornamental. | 
It is used for preserves. 



For the Soutltern States. 



121 



Cob^ea Scandeiis. Climbing Cobsea. Large purple bell shaijed 
flowers. Should be sowa in a hot-bet, and not kept too moist.' Place 
the seed edgewise in the ground. Twenty feet high. January till 
April. 





Morning Grlory. 



Mixed Thunbergia. 



Convolvulus majoFe Morning Glory. Well known vine with 
various handsomely colored flowers, of easy culture. Grows almost 
anywhere. Ten feet high. February till July. 

CurcHi'Mta. Ornamental Gourd. Mixed varieties or Ornamen- 
tal Gourds of different shapes and sizes. February till May. 

CurcurbJta lagrenaria dulcis. Sweet Gourd. A strong growl- 
ing vine of which the young fruits are used like Squash. February 
till April. 

Dolichos Lablab. Hyacinth 
Beans. Free growing plant, with pur- 
ple and white flowers. March till 
April. 

Ipomsea €|uainoplit rosea. 
Red Cypress Vine. Very beautiful, 
delicate foliage, of rapid growth, with 
scarlet flowers. 

IpomoBa ^uauioclit alba. 
White Cypress Vine. The same as the 
foregoing kind, except white flowers. 
February till August. 

Ipoiiieea Bona ISox, Large Flow^- 
ering Evening Glory. A vine of rapid 
growth, with beautiful blue and white 
flowers which open in the evening. 
Twenty feet high. February till June. 

Latliyrus odoratus. Sweet Peas. 
colors, very showy. Good for cut flowers, 
till April. "^ 

Maurandia Barclayana. Mixed Maurandia. A slender 
growing vine of rapid growth. Eose, purple and white colors mixed. 
Ten feet high. February till April. 




Hyacinth Bean. 

Beautiful flowers of all 
Six feet high. December 



122 



BidiCird Frotsclterd Almanac and Garden Manuai 



IVIaiuordiea Balsauiiaa. Balsam Apple. A climbing plant 
of very rapid growth, producing Cucumber-like fruits, with warts on 
them. They are believed to contain some me4icinal virtues. They 
are put in jars with alcohol, and are used as a dressing lor cuts, 
bruises, etc. 

L.nfi*a acntangula* Dish Eag Vine, A very rapid growing 
vine of the Gourd family. When the fi^uit is dry, the fibrous sub- 
stance, which covers the seeds, can be used as a rag. February till 
April. 

Sechium. ediiie-. Vegetable Pear or Mirliton. A rapid growing 
vine with grape-like leaves, of which the fruit is e-aten ; there are two 
varieties, white and green. It has only one se^d, and the whole fruit 
has to be planted, 

Tropceoluiu maja&. Nasturtium. Trailing plants with ele- 
gant flowers of different shades, mostly yellow and crimson, which are 
produced in great abundance. Four feet Mgh. February till April. 
Thunberg^ia. !M!ixed Thunbergia. Very ornameDtal vines, with 
vellow bell-shaped flowers, vdth dark eve. Six feet high. Februarv 
till :Mav. 



BULBOUS ROOTS, 




'^^^ fw 







Anemones. 



Anemones. Double flower- 
ing. Planted and treated the same 
as the Eanunculus. They are of 
great varieties in color, 
Double Dutch, 40 cts. per dozen. 
French, 50 " 
Dahlias. Fine double-named 
varieties. Plants so well known 
for their brilliancy, diversity of 
colors and profuse flowering quali- 
ties, that they require no recom- 
mendation. They can be planted 
from February till Zvlay; they 
thrive best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be tied up to stakes, which 
ought to be driven into the ground 
before or when planting them. To 
have them flov\-er late in the season 
they should be planted late in the 
spring, and the flower buds nipped 
off when they appear ; treated in 
this way. they will produce perfect 
flowers during fall. Undivided 
roots, S4.00 per dozen. 



For the Souihem States. 



123 




Dahlias. 



OSa4tiolus3 Hybrid 

Gladiolus. One of the best 
summer flowering bulbs ; 
they have been greatly im- 
proved of late 3^ears, and 
almost every color has been 
produced ; is tinged and 
blotched in all shades from 
delicate rose to dark ver- 
miiiion. ^Yllen planted at 
intervals during spring, 
they will fiovrer at different 
times, but those that are 
planted earliest ])roduce the 
finest flowers. The roots 
should be taken up in the 
fall. 

Hybrids mixed, first 
choice, lOe. each ; 75c. per 
dozen. 

Hybrids, white ground, 
1st choice, 10c. each; $1.00 
per dozen. 

Very fine named varie- 
ties, 25c. each. 




Ilvbvid Gladiolas. 



12i 



Blchard Frot<c]ter^ Almanac and Garden Manual 




4& 



^.'^^s^ 







Gloxinias. 



Gloxinias. These are 
really bulbous green -house 
plants, but they can be cul- 
tivated iu pots and kept in 
a shady place in the garden, 
or window. They are very 
beautiful ; color from white 
to dark violet and crimson. 
The leaves are velvety, and 
on some varieties very large. 
They should be planted 
early in spring ; require 
sandy ground and a .good 
deal of moisture during 
flowering time. French 
Hybrids, strong bulbs. S3.00 
per dozen. 





mm. 






Donlle Hvaciuth. 




Hyacintii^c (Dutch, i Double and single. The Hyacinth is a 
beautiful flowering bulb, well suited for open ground or pot culture. 
They should be planted from October till February. If planted in 
pots it is well to keep in a cool, rather dark place, till they are well 
started, when they can be placed in the full light and sun. Double 
and single. 15 cents each : 81.50 per dozen. 



For the Southern States. 



liilium ti§:riiiuiii. Tiger Lily. A well known variety, very 
showy and of easy culture ; 10 cents each. 

liiliuHi tig^i'iiiuiii fl. i>I. This is a new variety; it is perfectly 
double, and the petals are imbricated almost as regularly as a camel- 
lia flower. Novel and fine, 15 cents each. 




Lilium Tigrinum fl pi. 

JAPAN LILIES. 

liiliuni auratum. Golden 
Band Lily. This is a very hand- 
some lily ; the flowers are large 
and white, each petal having a 
yellow stripe. It is of easy cul- 
ture. A loamy, dry soil suits it 
best, and planted one inch deep. 
The past seas-on I had occa- 
sion to see several of this noble 
lily in bloom, and it is really 
fine ; half a dozen flowers open- 
ing at the same time, and measur- 
ing from six to nine inches 
across. It is very fragrant. I ex- 
pect some fine bulbs, same as I 
had last year, imported direct 
from their native country. 

Flowering bulbs, 30c. each. 

Ijilium laiicifoliuiii al- 
bum Praecox. Pure white 
Japan Lily, 40 cents each. 

Liilium lanci folium 
rubrum. White and red spot- 
ted, 20 cents each. 

Lilium lancifoliuiu roseum 




Lilium auratum. 
EOvSe spotted, 20c. each. 



These Japan Lilies are very beautiful and fragrant. Should be 
planted from October till January. Perfectly suited to this climate. 



EicJiard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Paeoiiia sinensis. Chinese or herbaceous Paeonia. Herba- 
ceous plants of different colors and great beauty ; they should be 
planted during fall in a shady situation, as they flower early in spring. 
If planted too late they will not flower perfectly ; 10c. each. 





Piaiiun cuius. 



Scilla peruviana. 



RaniiBicuStBS. Double Flowering. The roots can be planted 
during fall and winter, either in the open ground or in pots. The 
French varieties are more robust than the Persian, and the flowers 
are larger. The ground should be rather dry, and if planted in the 
open ground, it will be well to have the spot ajittle higher than the 
bed or border. 

Persian Eanunculus 25 cents per dozen. 

French " 40 " 

Scilla periiviaMa^ These are green-house bulbs at the North, 
but here they are hardy, and do well in the open ground. There are 
two varieties — the blue and the white. They threw up a shoot, on the 
end of which the flowers appear, forming a truss. Plant from Octo- 
ber till January. 30 cents each. 





Double Tulip. 



Single Tulip. 



For the Southern States. 



127 



Tulips. Double and single Tulips thrive better in a more North- 
ern latitude than this, but some years they flower well here, and as 
they are cheap a few flowering bulbs 
will pay the small amount they 
cost. They should not be planted later 
than December, and placed very shallow 
in the ground ; not more than one-third 
of the bulb should be covered. When 
near flowering they require a good deal 
of moisture. Single and double, 50 
cents per dozen. 

Tuberoses. Double Flowering. 
They are ornamental for the garden, 
and very valuable for making bouquets, 
on account of their pure white color and 
great fragrance. Plant during the spring 
months. Strong bulbs, 10 cents each ; 
75 cents per dozen. 




Tuberoses, double flowering. 



BOUQUET PAPERS. 



I keep a large and varied stock of bouquet papers, besides the 
different kinds enumerated below, I also have finer qualities, satin, 
velvet and tarleton, ranging from $1.50 to $4.50 each ; also, some new 
styles called Parisian, finished in the same exquisite style as those 
above. They are very appropriate for bridal bouquets. 

PASTED CARTONS. 




Measure includes the Lace. 





Inches in 








Inches in 






2^0. 


diameter. 


per doz. 


per gross. 


No. 


diameter. 


per doz. 


per gross. 


4 


4^ 


$0 15 


$1 50 


1622 


11.^ 


$0 60 


$6 75 


523 


4| 


15 


1 75 


1671 


ll-I- 


60 


6 75 


1716 


5 


20 


2 00 


1919 


12" 


60 


6 75 


531 


5i 


^ 15 


1 75 


533 


12 


60 


7 00 


1823 


5l 


15 


1 75 


12 


12 


60 


7 00 


1688 


7" 


25 


2 75 


1789 


12^ 


60 


7 00 


1606 


n 


30 


3 00 


1604 


13' 


50 


6 00 


164S 


11 


30 


3 25 


1760 


13 


60 


7 00 


1662 


s' 


Q 35 


3 50 


1712 


m 


70 


1 ^'^ 


518 


8 


35 


3 50 


1920 


13i 


90 


ib 00 


1610 


8 


35 


. 3 5(» 


501 


14^ 


70 


7 50 


1682 


9 


40 


4 00 


1693 


15 


90 


10 00 


1685 


9 


40 


4 00 


1922 


15 


1 20 


13 50 


10 


9i 


40 


4 25 


176 


15 


1 00 


11 00 


1 1609 


10^ 


50 


5 00 


519 


16 


80 


9 00 


i 1690 


10 


50 


4 75 


1923 


16 


1 50 


15 00 


1918 


lOi 


50 


5 00 


525 


18 


1 40 


12 00 


552 


lof 


60 


5 00 


18 


18 


1 50 


15 00 


! 1677 


11" 


60 


6 25 


507 


20 


1 50 


17 00 



12! 



Ei 



trJ. Fr :■:>■: 



Garden ITan-'.a: 



A 



\ 



<v^ 




34 

■2i 
119 



laclies 
net 
3! 

K 

pi 



ITALIANS, with 12 Scallops. 



so 10 
10 
15 
10 



Meastire exclnelve of Lace. 

Indies in 

per doz. > : . diaineter. 

'so 75 

90 

S3 n 




31 



■i 



1 25 

1 <>0 



ClO 



so 15 
2<? 
on 



per doz. 

$1 50 

1 60 

1 75 



s^^J^^J^^ 



^^ -:■ 



ITALIANS, with 24 Scallops, 



\y-^ 



-t 



'j> 



jr- 






^-, 



^ 






J^ 



Irc>es in 



.-.J- • 



V-, 

44 



eac>. 

SO 10 
15 
on 



jasure csdasive of Lace. 

Incies in 

SI yf^ 73 n so -25 

1 4*:' . ,_ 

15 . 1^ 



ITALIANS, with Gilt or Silver Lace, 12 Scallops, 

^leas^^eexoltisi-eofLace. 



■iilineter- ^^"t- 

H gilt, "^ <^t5. 

6i gilt and silver 25 ct 5. 

-' silt, . . - 3-^ Ct5. 



33 
13 

15 



-eter. 
gilt. 

gilt, 
silver. 



per d:z. 
S2 25 



eacli. 
50 Cts. 
50 Cts. 
50 cts. 



For the Southern State.'i 



129 



THE NEW YORK SEED DRILL. 

MATTHEWS, PATENT. 




I take pleasure in calling your attention to a perfect Seed Drill. 
This Drill was invented and perfected by the father of the seed-drill 
business— Mr. E. G. Matthews. It has been his aim for years to make 
a perfect drill and do awau y^ith the objections found in all others, and 
in the New York he has accomplished it. Its advantages over other 
drills are as follows : 

1. Marker-bar under the frame, held by clamps, easy to adjust 
to any width by simply loosening thumb nuts. 

2. Adjustable plow, which opens a wide furrow, and can be set to 
sow at any depth. 

3. Open seed conductor to show seed dropping. 

4. Bars in seed conductor, for scattering seed in wide furrows, 
prevents disturbing strong plants when thinning out — an important 
feature. 

5. Eidged roller. 

6. Dial plate in full sight of operator, and made of patent com- 
bination white metal, which prevents rust 

7. Dial plate set on fulcrum, and hence holds close up, preventing 
seed from spilling, 

8. It has a large seed-box with hinged cover. 

a. Machine will stand up alone when not in use, not liable to tip 
over. 

It is the SIMPLEST, MOST COMPACT and EASIEST DRILL TO 
HANDLE, being only 32 inches long. ' 

It covers the seed better and runs very easy. 

Packed in crates for shipping. Weight about 45 pounds. Price. 
$10 00. 
9 



130 



Blcliarcl Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



MATTHEWS' HAND CULTIVATOR. 

The Matthews' Hand Culti- 
VATOK is one of the best imple- 
ments in use for weeding be- 
tween row crops, and for flat 
cultivation generally, and is an 
indispensable companion to the 
seed drill. 

It is thoroughly constructed 
throughout, very durable ; easy 
to operate. A boy can do as much 
icith it, as six men icith hoes. It 
spreads from 6 to 14 inches, and will cut all the ground coTered, even 
when spread to its greatest extent. Its teeth are of a new and im- 
proved pattern, and thoroughly pulverize and mellow the soil. The 
depth of cultivating may be accurately gauged by raising or lowering 
the wheels, which is quickly done by the use of a thumb screw. 




Price $8 00, Boxed. 



THE CHAUTAUQUA CORN AND SEED PLANTER, 

Patented April 4, 1882. 

Unequalled in Simplicity, Durability and Efficiency. 
The Best is the Cheapest. Peefectlt Simple. Simply Perfect. 



DlEECTIOJ^S : 

To set the seed cup. — Loosen the set-screw 
and draw out the inside or narrow gauge far 
enough to drop the desired number of seeds. 
Then tighten the screw. For ordinary plan- 
ting, only the narrow gauge should be moved. 
In putting in phosphate, or a large quantity of 
seed, both the narrow and wide gauges should 
be drawn out together. By taking out the 
screw, the gauges may be drawn entirely out. 

In experienced or careful hands the 
machine will plant perfectljv in any kind or 
condition of soil, mellow or soddy, dry or wet. 

To operate the j)lanter. —'Place the blades in 
the ground to the desired depth, in advance of 
you, having the "step" to the front, as in the 
cut, without its touching the ground. Then 
pressing down and forward on the handle, walk 
fore ward. The step will press on the ground 
and then the blades will be opened, the seed 
deposited in the ground, and a charge taken 
for the next hill. After walking past the plan- 
ter, still pressing on the handle, lift it from the 



For the Southern States. 



131 



ground to place for the next hill ; as this is done the charge of seed 
will be HEARD rattling down upon the steel blades, and the operator 
will know the seed is ready for the next hill. Use the planter as you 
would a cane, or as much so as possible. The blades must always en- 
ter the ground closed, and come out open. 

Its Efficienci/.—We claim that the "Chautauqua" is not equalled as 
a dropper and planter. By actual trial in the field with a number of 
good planters, it has been shown that our machine will cover the seed 
in different soils and at different depths, shallow or deep, better than 
any other planter. Our new and improved seed slide, having double 
gauges for adjusting the seed cup, enables the planter do drop accu- 
rately small or large seed in the quantity desired. 



GARDEN IMPLEMENTS, 




Ladiefc' Set, Floral Tools. No. 




Bovs' Favorite Set. 



132 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Weeding Hoe and Rake Combined. 



Cast Steel Garden Trovrel. 




Strawberry or Transplanting Fork. 



Spading Fork, D Handle. 




Excelsior Weeding Hook. 




Savnor's Pruning Knife. No. 194. 




Savnor's Prunius: Kuife. No, 192 



For the Soutliern States. 



133 





Slide Pruning Shear. 



He^ge Shear. 



0. G. Hand Pruning Shear. 



Dutch, or Scuffle Hoe. 



Lang's Weeder. 



6 00 


7 50 


9 00 


♦ 


90 


1 00 


1 10 


45 


Bo 


65 


65 


o5 



ISi Bidiard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



PRICE LIST OF CtARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 



Improved American Garden Syringes. 

No. A (SmaJlj $2 25 

No. 2— Conservatory, with two extra roses 4 75 

No. 3 — Green House, " " '' , , 

No. 5— " - " " " . 

No. 8- " " " " 

iHOES. 

W. A. Lj'ndon's Louisiana, No. 1 

No. 2 .:.. .. 

No. 3 

C. A, Alayuavd's No. 

No. 2 ,. 

No. 4 .V - 

King, Briggs &. Co. 's Scovill's Pattern No. 3 

" Na 2 

D. & H. ScoviUs Imp, Planters', 8 inches 75 

Lane's Crescent, No. 1 65 

No. 2 ... ... 60 

Champion,, with handJe . 75 

Socket, with handle ' 60 

Two Pronged Weeding, with handle .' 50c and 60 

Magic Hoe 75 

Hexamer Prong Hoe 1 25 

Solid Shank Cotton Hoes, 6 to 8^ inches 50c, 55e and 60 

RAKES. 

Malleable Iron, 12 teeth ■. . . 50 

Steel, 10 " 50 

12 '' ; 60 

14 " .-. . 70 

16 '^ ,. 80 

Wooden Hay Sakes 25e and 35 

'' Head (Malleable Iron teeth,) 50 

SPADES. 

Ames' Long Handled 1 20 

Ames' Blight 1 00 

Rowlands' Long Handled ... 60c and 75 

Ames' Short Handled 1 00 

Bowland's " 75 

French, steel, without Handles 1 15 

SHOVELS. 

Rowland's Short Handled (square) 75 

Ames' " - ... 1 20 

Ames' Bright Long Handled, (round point) 90 

Rowland's Long Handled, (round point) . 75 



For the Southern States. 135 



SCYTHE SNATHS. 

Handles for French ScytLe Blades $1 00 

No. 1, Round Socket slip ring 50 

No. 0, Plate Heel, slip ring GO 

No. 00, Loop Fastener ' 75 

SICKLES. 

English (welded), No. 2 , 40 

No. 3 45 

" (riveted back,) No. 1 50 

No. 2 60 

No. 3.. 75 

French 40c and 45 

SHEARS. 

Hedge Shears, 1,0 inches 2 00 

8 " 2 00 

Pruning " No. 1^ (Weiss) 2 00 

No. 2, " 1 75 

" " No. 3, " .... , 1 50 

O. G. ...-., 1 50 

' ♦ " New England 75 

Slide Pruning Shear, large , 4 00 

small 3 00 

KNIVES. 

Union Knife Co.'s Budding, (wooden handle) ..... 75 

G-eo. Wostenholmes '* (white bone handle) No. 1, $1 00; No. 2, 1 25 

H. & J. W. King's Pruning from 60c to 1 25 

Saynor & Cook's " , from 75c to 1 00 

Saynor & Cook's Budding $1 00 and 1 25 

Aaron Burkinshaw's Pruning and Budding . . from 40c to 80 

FORKS. 

Spading, Long Handled 1 00 

D Handle (strapped) $1 00 to 1 25 

Manure, Long Handled, 4 tine 75 

Shoit " 4 " ...0 50 

" Long " 6 " (extra) 1 25 

POTATO HOOKS 

Long Handled, 6 tine 65 

4 " 50c and 75 

SCYTHES. 

French, First QuaUty (polished), 22 inches 90 

24 " 1 00 

2G " 1 15 

.28 " .... 1 25 

Second Quality, (blue) 22 " 80 

24 " 90 

26 " 1 00 

28 " 1 10 

A.mericau Grass , 75 

Blood's Bramble 75 

The French Scythe Blades are imported by me, and are of the best quality ; 
none better can be had. 



; 13G Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 

' FLORAL TOOLS. 

; The Boy's Favorite— Hoe, Spade aacl Eake $2 50 

, No-. 5 — 4 pieces, Hoe, Rake, Spade and Fork (Ladies' Setj 1 25 

! TREE PRUNERS. 

I Length of Pote 8 feet, weight 3h pounds 2 26 

I " "10 " " U " ■ 2 50 

I Extra Knives each 30 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

I Pruning Saws 50c, 75c, 90c and 1 00 

I Excelsior Weeding Hooks , 25 

Transplanting Shovels , 25c and 35 

Trowels, (American) , 6 inch, loe ; 7 inch, 20 

I '• "■ ■ (English) 50c and 75 

I " Forks No. 1, 20c ; No. 2, 25 

Scotch V/hetstones each 25 

Common " '' 10 

French " .... each 10c and 15 

j Lang's Hand Weeder ..,..,.... 30 

; Nottingham Bill Hooks . . . , , . . . . , 1 50 

: Hoe Handles ,...., 25 

i Rake Handles, ... ...,,. , 15 

! Spade & Shovel Handles 25 

Philadelphia Broadcast Seed Sower .] 6 00 

WATERING POTS. 

6 Quarts. Japanned ... 50 

8 " " ;... 65 

10 " " 75 

I 12 " " 1 00 

I 16 " " 1 40 

i Extra Heavy, (hand made) SI 25, 1 50, 1 75 and 2 00 

These are made of the best material, and have very fine rose; they are made 
by a mechanic who has been furnishing the vegetable gardeners for years with 
these pots, and has improved upon them until they are perfect for the purpose. 




For Uce Southern States, 137 



DHOURO, OR EGYPTIAN CORN. 

{Sorghum Vulgar e.) • 

By E. M. Hudson. 

This <>ei^ai is ordinarily supposed to be a native of Asia, but it is 
cultivated largely as well in Africa, some portions of the West Indies 
and South America. In the United States it was formerly planted 
quite extensively in the Southern States; but at present, many more 
times as much of it is grown in Kansas as in all the rest of this country. 
Its name varies almost with the locality in which it is raised ; and the 
varieties— the results of sports or crossings— are almost as numerous 
as its designations. In Kansas, whicli must be regarded as the leading 
locality of its i3resent production in this country, tvv'O varieties mainly 
are cultivated, the Red and the White. Both of these are good, equally 
so, perhaps, unless as to productiveness, for it is generally believed 
that the Bed produces much more grain than tbe White. Also it is 
said that the Ued will ripen seed farther Is'orth than the White; but in 
the Southern States this is of no consideration, in as much as both in 
one season have produced seed from which a second seed-bearing 
crop has been produced without diCficulty. Nor does it appear, as far 
as actual experiment has gone, that the Ued is much, if any, more 
productive than the White in the Southern belt, at least near the Gulf 
coast. 

In nutrition the grain is but little behind wheat, while its yield 
per acre is greater than any cereal in the known world. From 100 to 
150 bushels of grain on rich lands is but an ordinary yield ; and it is 
claimed that in Kansas this year near 200 bushels per acre have been 
produced. This is quite possible of belief to those who saw the mag- 
nificent panicles on exhibition at Atlanta, at the International Cotton 
Exposition last autumn. In certain portions of Kansas, where pro- 
longed droughts are usual, its cultivation has recently been success- 
fully introduced as a substitute for wheat ; for drought seems to have 
but little influence to i^etard its growth. Indeed, when planted side 
by side with Indian Corn, the latter from drought has been curled and 
twisted almost beyond hope, the former exhibited no external effects 
of the dry season. 

Of course the yield varies with the soil on which it grows, the 
richer the soil the greater the yield ; but it will grow well on soil how- 
ever poor; in this respect taking precedence even of the Cow Pea. It 
grows from six to twelve feet high, and may be repeatedly cut for 
green soiling. For, not only as a cereal, making a meal far better 
than that of Indian Corn, but also as a forage plant the Dhoiiro is in- 
valuable. Not only does it spring up from the stubble, when cut at 
from 3 to 5 feet high, but also after maturing the seed heads it sends 
forth shoots or suckers from lower joints, which in turn produce 
smaller heads. It is rich in saccharine matter and affords a good, 
though rough hay or fodder when cured. Cut when very young and 
succulent it is not easy to cure unless the weather be fine ; but, as it 
continues to grow till frost, making new suckers from the joints all 
the time, it may be allowed to mature seed, be cut and then easily 



138 



Bichard Frotsclier's Almanac and Gurden Manual 



cur^^ forming a fair fodder with rich grain" combined. Cut in this 
way the stalks not only cure more easily^ but keep far better than any 
other of the family of pithy grasses. It will not become sour like In- 
dian born. The most economical and practical way of curing it, is, as 
it will thus appear, to cut and house stalks and seed all together when 
the larger quantity of seed has ripened. All kinds of stock are fond 
of both the fodder and grain, and cattle especially eat it with great 
avidity. 

It Is cuItiYated eithex by sowing bjoad-cast for hay, or to be^^ut for 
green soiling, or in drills about thre^ feet apart. If sown broad-east, 
one bushel of seed to the acre, harrowed in, is sufQcient. The yield 
of green stuff and cured hay is simply enormous : its growth is rapid 
and continuous till frost ; so that there is no fear of losing it -from he-. 
coming ovex-ripe. If sowed in drills one peck of seed per acre is am- 
ple. Of course, except on very rich land, the seed-heads will be lar- 
ger and finer if not sown too thickly, por grain the stalks should not 
be nearer than 12 inciies in the drilL but if to be cut repeatedly till frost 
for green soiling, it is better to sow quite thickly in the drills. An 
inch or an inch and a lialf is the proper depth for covering the seed. 
Of course the ground should be well ploughed and harrowed before 
sowing. When the plants are well i;p they shoidd be thinned to the 
proper distance in the drills by chopping across the rows. One or two 
good ploughings is all the cultivation needed. Once well stalled no 
fear need be entertained that weeds or grass can make headway— 
they will be si>eedily choked out by the dense growth of foliage. So 
rapid is its growth that the seed crop can soon be harvested, and, as 
before stated, a new crop from the seed be grown the same year; It 
can be sown at any time in the far South from iMarch to August ; it is 
not injured by a slight frost when young. The leaves, if stripped 
from the stalks, make as good fodder as those of Indian Corn, al- 
though they are not as large. If both fodder and grain are gathered, 
and stock turned in to feed on the stalks, and the remnants then 
ploughed in, it will be found that the lands will lose very little by the 
operation. It is astonishing how quickly cattle will grow fat on these 
bare succulent stalks. 

The green fodder, by actual analysis, as compared with Bed Clover 
in blossom, is shown to be richer both in heating proi^erties and fat 
forming principles than the clover, but not so rich in flesh producers. 
The following table will show their comparative values. 



irt- ft- 



^ i l5= 






• o ! • 



"x 



Dhouro 

Red Clover in blossom, 


... 77.3 "21.4 
. . . 1 78.0 20. 3 


1.1 
1.7 


2.9 
3.7 


11.9 
8.6 


6.7 
8.0 


1.4 
0.8 



As Dhouro will yield more grain, fodder and stalks on a greater 
variety of lands, with less labor, in one season, and will leave more 
rou?h litter to be turned into the soil than anv other cereal, besides 



For the Southern States. 139 



being exeelleut food for both man and beast, it certainly deserves to 
be considered one of the most valuable cereals, and is worthy of the 
attention of every farmer in the South, Even as feed for chickens 
nothing is its equal. 

During the last two or three years a variety, which exi3erience 
shows to be radically different from those above described, has been 
sent out by the enterprising proprietors of the liural New Yorker. The 
seed heads of this variety, popularly known as the "Rural Branching 
Sorghum," are borne upright, in a vertical position, while the heads of 
the others are mainly dropping, bending downwards in a graceful curve. 
Also, the seed of the Branching variety are somewhat smaller and 
more spherical than in the other kinds. In addition the seed mature 
much more slowly, but in ample time to be harvested in the lower 
Gulf States before frost. The stalk growth of the "Rural Branching" 
variety is far larger than that of the others, being in fact as large as 
that of large Southern Corn ; while it obtains a height of from 15 to 16 
feet on very ordinary piney- woods lands. The leaf also isiully as large 
as that of Indian Corn, thus producing more fodder by at least one- 
fourth than Indian Corn on the same land. This variety, moreover, 
tillers or suckers at the ground enormously, each seed producing from 
three to a dozen stalks, and sometimes more. When once w^ell under 
way, it can be cut for green soiling oftener, and will yield at each cut- 
ting far more fodder than the other varieties. It suckers and tillers 
more and more the oftener it is cut; and, so far, it exceeds greatly in 
yield of green fodder and hay any of the familiar fodder plants, not 
excepting perhaps even the Pearl Millet. The "Rural Branching" 
variety is, therefore, more valuable as a forage plant to be cut for 
green soiling, or for curing as hay. This variety should be planted 
exclusively in drills four feet apart, and not nearer than 18 to 20 inches 
in the drill, on account of its mammoth grow^th. All these varieties 
are annuals. 



THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

[Helianthus Tuherosus.) 
By E, M. Hudson. 

Used as a vegetable, the Jerusalem Artichoke makes a delicious 
pickle ; and when cooked, as hereafter directed, it is esteemed by con* 
noisseurs as a luxury. 

Wash and scrape or pare them ; boil in milk and water till they are 
soft, which will be from fifteen to thirty minutes. Take them out and 
stew them for a few minutes in a sauce made by rolling a bit of butter 
of the size of a walnut in flour, mixed with half a pint of cream or 
milk, and seasoned with pepper, salt, or grated nutmeg. 

It is as a forage or root crop, however, that the Artichoke possesses 
unusual merits for the farmer. Its habit may be styled self-propa- 
gating, for when once established it is almost perpetual; and this 
gives it a peculiar value. It will grow on exceedingly poor land and 



liO Blchanl FrotscJiers Almanao and Garden Manual 



produce well, while on rich land the yield is enormous. Three bush- 
els of tubers are amply sufficient to. plant an acre, the large ones be- 
ing cut into pieces with two or three eyes, like potatoes. The land 
should be thoroughly ploughed, and from. Januaiy to April they 
should be planted in farrows about three to four feet apart, dropping 
the tubers about eighteen inches apart, and covering with a i^lough. 

When they are well up, plough them as you would corn ; and when 
about a foot high, plough them again, throwing a furrow to each side, 
and 5*ou are done cultivating them forever. The first ye^r they will 
yield a good drop (from five to eight hundred bushels), and will im.- 
prove for two or three years, if the soil is good, till they double the 
product of the first year. On piney-woods land seven hundred bush- 
els to the acre is only a fair yield. On very rich land 1500 to 2000 bush- 
els, it is said, have been produced. In August the tops may be cut 
and cured for hay, which is quite equal to corn fodder, or may be fed 
I green, soiled. The yield is large, and the tops are eagerly eaten by 
I cattle, horses and mules. The tops, if cut, should be taken off about a 
foot from the ground. One cutting does not at all affect the yield of 
the tubers. In November the hogs should be turned in to harvest the 
tubers for themselves, and may remain on them till March. In car- 
bonaceous matter— starch or its equivalent — they are but a trifle infe- 
rior to potatoes, as will be seen from the following table : 

In 1000 parts — Flesh Formers. Fat Formers. 

Potatoes 14 189 

Carrots 6 66 

Parsnips 12 ...;.. 70 

Mangolds ... ., 2 ... .102 

Sugar Beets 3 136 

White Turnips 1 40 

Artichokes. 10 188 

Thus it will be seen that in 1000 parts potatoes contain 200 parts of 
nutriment, and artichokes 198 parts, while turnips contain only 41 
parts- Yet the turnip, above all roots, has made English agriculture 
progressive, because they may be fed on land without gathering. The 
artichoke is unaffected in the ground by any amount of cold, and, in- 
deed, should always remain there until gathered for use or planting. 

The enormous yield, the small amount of labor in cultivation, and 
the nutritious character of the tubers, make them the most econom- 
ical food for hogs that can possibly be grown. And the hogs, if suf- 
fered to r(?ot them, will be an advantage to them by breaking up and 
softening the soil as far down as pulverized. Sows icWi sackling jjigs 
shoidd not go on them, as the artichokes are said to injure the quality of 
the milk so as to cause suckling pigs to dwindle ; but as soon as they 
are weaned the pigs will do finely by rooting for their living. These 
artichokes are also the healthiest food that hogs can have, and they 
need nothing else but salt, ashes and water when fed on them. 

Price per Qt. per Gall. per Bush. 



For the Southern States. Ul 



CHUFA. 

The following remarks on Chura are taken from a letter written by 
N. Stansbury, Esq., to the Louisiana Sugar Bowl. By my own ex- 
perience I can indorse all what is said, and recommend to all who 
have not planted the "Chufa," to give it a trial. It is the best feed to 
fatten hogs. 

They can be planted from March to June. They will yield from 
125 to 150 bbls. per acre, with good cultivation. They are very produc- 
tive and the best feed to fatten hogs. One bbl, will put as much fat on 
the ribs of a hog as two of corn. The nut has a fine flavor, nearly equal 
to the pecan. 

They should be planted in rows two feet apart, and from 10 to 12 
inches in the row. When planted this way beds should be used and a 
deep water furrow left at a distance of twelve or fifteen feet. The better 
plan would be to plant three feet apart and ten inches in the drill, as 
this would afford a water furrow and not materially lessen the yield. 
The nuts to be reserved for seed or other purposes should be gathered 
before November, or in advance of frost, as the top then dies and the 
nuts will not come up with the spires. 

All the nuts not needed for seed will remain perfectly sound in the 
ground from September until April, w^iere the hogs can eat at will. 
The nut sends up a single spire so much like coco, it might deceive 
even an experienced eye at its first appearance. Around this spire a 
multitude of others form rapidly. At the foot of each spire is the nut, 
never more than two inches in the ground, and seldom a half inch. 
The cluster ol spires will equal in diameter the head of a flour barrel. 
As the whole surface of the ground will be nearly covered by nuts, one 
may form some idea of the yield. To lift them up, you have only to 
gather all the spires as a lady does her hair when combing it, and a 
slight pull will bring the entire cluster up with nine-tenths of the nuts 
attached. As very little dirt adheres to the roots, the nuts can be 
threshed off quite easily and rapidly. A boy of twelve or fifteen years, 
with two or three small children, could gather and thresh out four or 
five barrels daily. Unlike the coco, the chufa will die out in two or 
three years, if neglected or suffered to be choked with weeds or grass. 

Price per Qt. Per Gall. Per Bushel. 



LE CONTE PEAR. 

I am prepared to furnish cuttings of this new pear, which origin- 
ated in Georgia, and is a hybrid between the '' China Sand" and one of 
the finer cultivated varieties. It is propagated with remarkable ease 
from cuttings, which make a growth of from 6 to 9 feet the first sea- 
son. The fourth year from setting the cuttings the trees should com- 
mence to bear. Propagation by cuttings is considered the best method. 

This new Southern pear is as vigorous in growth as the China 
Sand, and is an enormous bearer. The fruit is large, pale yellow, 
juicy melting, and of good quality, doing better in the South than else- 



142 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



where. It bears transportation well, and commands the highest prices 
at the North. Time of ripening begins about the middle of July. So 
far this pear has never been known to blight. It promises to be the 
pear for the South. 

Price, 11.50 per hundred, by Express or freight. Postage extra by 
mail. 

All choice varieties of nursery stock can be obtained and furnished 
at reasonable rates on application. 



CELESTE OR CELESTIAL FIG. 

I have for sale about two thousand, two year old trees of this variety. 
They have been raised from cuttings in a sandy loam ; are well rooted, 
and raised to a single stem ; not in a number of sprouts, as is often the 
case, when raised from suckers taken off from old trees. 

The cultivation of this fruit has rather been neglected, which should 
not be so, as the fig is always a sure crop, with very little attention. 
It has commenced to be an article of commerce, when preserved; 
shipped from here it sells quite readily North, put up in that way. The 
above variety is the best for that purpose, not liable to sour like the 
yellow skinned varieties, and sweeter than other dark skinned kinds. 

Price, 25c. each ; $3.00 per doz. ; $20.00 per hundred ; packed and 
delivered on steamboat, or K. E. depot. 



EXTRA CLEANED BIRD SEED. 



I make a specialty to put up choice re-cleaned bird seed 
in cartoons holding one pound. These cartoons contain a 
mixture of Sicily Canary, Hemp, German Eape and German 
Millet, — all re-cleaned and of best quality. 

Have also plain canary put up in same way, one pound 
cartoons; this is of the very best quality and also re-cle^ned. 

Price, 10c, per cartoon; 3 cartoons, 25c. ^ 

Have also in bulk, the above as well as Hemp and Rape. 

Cuttle Fish Bone, 5c, a piece; 50c, a pound. 




For the Southern States. 



143 



nsrOVELTIES. 



NEW TOMATO. 




LiMngston's Teauty. 

This new variety has been raised by A. W. Livingston's Sons, the 
originators of the best varieties of Tomatoes now in cultivation. They 
claim it to be the best variety ever introduced. The color is quite dis- 
tinct, being a very glossy crimson with a light tinge of purple, (lighter 
than the Acme) ; it grows in clusters of four or five large fruits, (on a 



lU 



Pilchard Frot.-icher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



strong Tiue,) retaining its large size \evy late in the season. It will 
average more pounds of fruit to the acre through the season than any 
other sort. It ripens with the Acme, or Perfection, which are as early 
as any good variety. It ripens rery evenly, is entirely free from ribbed 
and elongated fruit, being perfect in shape. Since it has been cultivated, 
it has shown no signs of rotting. It seldom cracks like s-- many of the 
thin skinned sorts, immediately after a rain. The fruit has been kept 
in good shape and color for over two weeks. 

For shipping and early market it cannot be excelled, on account 
of its solidity, toughness of skin, and especially on account of its color, 
as it can be picked quite green, and will look well, and ripen up nicely, 
while all strictly red varieties have a yellowish shade until quite ripe. 

The originators have called it "Livingston's Beauty'' because it is 
pronounced by everybody to be a Beauty indeed, and it certainly is 
worthy of Livingston's name, which will, no doubt, assist in its intro- 
duction. 

Price, per packet, 25c: five packets for SI. 00. 



PUMPKIN, 




Golden Yelio'5\' Mammoth. 



This variety has originated in France. It is called "'•'King of Mam- 
moths" as it frequently, under good cultivation, reaches the enormous- 
weight of 250 lbs., and over. Flesh and skin are of a bright golden 
yellow color, fine grained, and of excellent quality; measuring some- 
times 2i to 3 feet in diameter. 

Price. S2.00 per pound ; \ lb, 60c : 2'Jc. per uz. 



For the Southern States. 



145 




The Kolb CJeait IFater Melon. 

It is only two years since this variety has been introduced, but the 
qualities are so firie that most of the melons ship|)ed last year to this 
market were of this variety. It is the best shipping melon cultivated ; 
flesh crimson ; very thin but tough rind ; line flavor and full of flesh ; 
no hollow in the middle. It is the heaviest melon for its size. Every- 
body connected with melon culture in this section knows that the only 
reliable seeds for that purpose are the Southern Grown ; seeds grown 
North cannot stand the sun so well and will never produce the same 
number of melons, or of as good a quality, 

Whsit I ofler Sive Southern grown, j^ure, and true to name, of this 
variety. 

Price, $1.75 per pound ; 50c. per \ lb ; 15c. per oz. 




New Velvet Okra. 



A new variety ; dwarf, round, smooth pods, free from ridges and 
seams, and not prickly to the touch, very prolific. 1 had tried this 
variety last year very thoroughly by some of the best vegetable growers 



146 Bichard Frotsclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



about the city, and they all pronounced it as very superior. Below is 
a letter on the merits of this Okra, written by one of my customers, a 
very intelligent and observant grower. 

Four Oaks, Jeff. Par., Nov. 4, 1885. 
Richard Frotscher, Esq., New Orleans. 

In reply to your inquiry relative to the okra seed you gave me last 
Spring for trial, I beg leave to state as follows. 

Planted alongside of our Creole seed, it. commenced bearing two 
weeks sooner, ^yielding three times as much at each gathering. It 
forms young pods very rapidly, which enables you to gather for mar- 
ket much oftener than with the old variety ; besides, it is free from 
spines which are so disagreeable in gathering the old kind. It does 
not grow so tall, which is another advantage ; taken all together, it is 
the best variety I have ever seen, and will come into general use by all 
persons planting for the market. 

Respectfully yours, 

E. W. SHARP. 

TEOSINTE. 

{Beana /^/.r>^rir^^s•. ) 

This is a forage plant from Central America. It resembles Indian Corn 
in aspect and vegetation, but produces a great number of shoots 3 to 1 
yards high ; it is perennial, but only in such situations where the 
thermometer does not fall below freezing point. Cultivated as an 
annual, it will yield a most abundant crop of excellent green fodder. 
Price, 11.75 per lb. ; 50c. per i lb. ; 20c. per oz. 

MOSBY'S PROLIFIC CORN. 

This is a Southern Corn, and is recommended for general crop. The 
originator says of this variety : "This corn is a cross between two 
widely different varieties. It is purely white, very small cob ; deep 
full grain ; neither too hard, nor too soft. It will stand crowding in 
the drill as close again as any other variety. Ears of medium size, but 
long. It stands drought better than ordinary corn." 

It has been cultivated in Mississippi to a large extent, and has 
averaged 70 bushels per acre, with some as much as 78 The ordinary 
corn, upon the same land, with same season and cultivation, would not 
average one half of these yields. The Mosby's Proliiic Corn does not 
require a particle more labor to make a crop than ordinary corn. 
Nearly every stalk has two fully developed ears ; a large number of 
stalks have three ears, and occasionally we find stalks with four or 
five ears. 

Price, per bushel, $2.50 ; 75c. per peck ; 50c. per gallon ; 15c. per qt. 
Do not fail to give this corn a trial. 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Almauac 7 to 18 

Artichoke 23 and 24 

Asparagus 24 

Beans (Bush) 24 

Beans, (Pole) 25 

Beans (Dwarf, Snap or Bush) . .25 to 27 

Beans (Pole or Running) 27 

Beans, English 28 

Beets 28 to 30 

Bird Seed, Extra Cleaned 142 

Borecole or Kale 30 

Broccoli.. 31 

Brussels Sprouts 31 

Bulbous Roots. 122 to 127 

Bouquet Papers 127 and 128 

Cabbage ...31 to 36 

Cauliflower ... 3G to 38 

Carrot 38 to 40 

Celery 40 and 41 

Celeste, or Celestial Fig 142 

Chervil 42 

Chufa 141 

Collards 42 

Corn Salad 42 

Corn 42 to 46 

Corn aod Seed Planter 130 

Cress 46 

Cucumber 46 and 48 

CHmbing Plants , . 120 to 122 

Directions for Planting 88 to 95 

Dhouro, or Egyptian Corn ... 137 to 139 

Eggplant. . ...48 

Endive 48 and 49 

Flower Seeds 102 to 120 

Grass and Field Seeds 80 to 87 

Garden Implements 131 to 133 

Herb Seeds. 79 

Hot Bed 20 



Page. 

Jerusalem Artichoke 139 and 140 

Kohlrabi . .49 

Le Conte Pear 141 and 142 

Leek ; 50 

Lettuce 50 and 51 

Matthews' Hand Cultivator 130 

Melon, Musk 51 and 53 

Melon, Water 53 to 55 

Mustard 56 

Nasturtium 56 

New York Seed Drill 129 

Novelties 143 to 146 

Okra .56 and 57 

Onion 57 and 58 

Parsley 58 

Parsnip .... 59 

Peas 59 to 61 

Pepper. 61 to 63 

Potatoes ._. . 63' to 67 

Pumpkin 67 

Price List 96 to 101 

Price ListGiirden Implements. 134 to 136 

Radish 68 ^nd 69 

Remarks on Raising Vegetables for 

Shipping 5 and 6 

Roqaette .69 

Salsify 70 

Sorrel , . , 70 

Spinach .,, . , 70 

Squash 70 and 71 

Seeds by Mail 4 

Sowing Seeds 21 

Shallots .....58 

Tomato 71 to 74 

Turnip 74 to 79 

Table showing Quantity of seed re- 
quired to the Acre 22 

Vegetable Garden 19 



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Address all Comnmnicafions to P. 0. Box 1996. 



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Seed Potatoes 






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Choice Seed Corn 



A SPECIAUTY. 



My Stock of Seeds is the largest in the South, to which 
I call the attention of all in want of fresh and reliable Seed. 

O-rders respectfully solicited. All communications will 
meet with prompt attention. 



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